Cancer mortality in East and Southeast Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, 1975-1995.
Routinely collected data for New South Wales were used to analyse cancer mortality in migrants born in East or Southeast Asia according to duration of residence in Australia. A case-control approach compared deaths from cancer at particular sites with deaths from all other cancers, adjusting for age, sex and calendar period. Compared with the Australian-born, these Asian migrants had a 30-fold higher risk of dying from nasopharyngeal cancer in the first 2 decades of residence, falling to ninefold after 30 years, and for deaths from liver cancer, a 12-fold risk in the first 2 decades, falling to threefold after 30 years. The initial lower risk from colorectal, breast or prostate cancers later converged towards the Australian-born level, the change being apparent in the third decade after migration. The relative risk of dying from lung cancer among these Asian migrants was above unity for each category of duration of stay for women, but at or below unity for men, with no trend in risk over time. An environmental or lifestyle influence for nasopharyngeal and liver cancers is suggested as well as for cancers of colon/rectum, breast and prostate. (+info)
Y chromosomal polymorphisms reveal founding lineages in the Finns and the Saami.
Y chromosomal polymorphisms were studied in 502 males from 16 Eurasian ethnic groups including the Finns, Saami (Inari Lake area and Skolt Saami), Karelians, Mari, Mokshas, Erzas, Hungarians (Budapest area and Csangos), Khanty, Mansi, Yakuts, Koryaks, Nivkhs, Mongolians, and Latvians. The samples were analysed for polymorphisms in the Y chromosome specific Alu insertion (YAP) and six microsatellites (DYS19, DYS389-I and II, DYS390, DYS392, DYS393). The populations were also screened for the recently described Tat polymorphism. The incidence of YAP+ type was highest in the Csangos and in other Hungarians (37.5% and 17.5%, respectively). In the Karelians and the Latvians it was present at approximately the same level as commonly found in other European populations, whilst absent in our further samples of Eurasian populations, including the Finns and the Saami. Aside from the Hungarians, the C allele of the Tat polymorphism was common in all the Finno-Ugric speaking populations (from 8.2% to 63.2%), with highest incidence in the Ob-Ugrian Khanty. The C allele was also found in the Latvians (29.4%). The haplotypes found associated with the Tat C allele showed consistently lower density than those associated with the T allele, indicating that the T allele is the original form. The computation of the age of the Tat C suggested that the mutation might be a relatively recent event giving a maximum likelihood estimate of 4440 years (95% confidence interval about 3140-6200 years). The distribution patterns of the 222 haplotypes found varied considerably among the populations. In the Finns a majority of the haplotypes could be assigned to two distinct groups, one of which harboured the C allele of the Tat polymorphism, indicating dichotomous primary source of genetic variation among Finnish males. The presence of a bottleneck or founding effect in the male lineages of some of the populations, namely in the Finns and the Saami, would appear to be one likely interpretation for these findings. (+info)
Automated peritoneal dialysis in Asia.
The socioeconomic statuses of Asian countries are diverse, and government reimbursement policies for renal replacement programs vary greatly from one country to another. Both factors affect not only the availability of treatment, but also the choice of dialysis modality. A close correlation is demonstrated between the dialysis treatment rate for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. A biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and the peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization rate is observed, in that the countries with the highest and lowest treatment rates tend to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tend to have higher PD utilization rates. In contrast, countries with high continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) utilization rates have the lowest automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) utilization rates. The low APD utilization rates are due to fact that, in most instances, patients themselves must purchase the APD machine, and the machines are relatively more expensive in Asian Pacific countries. Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) is most frequently practiced. Generally, convenience for employment is the main indication for the utilization of APD. Other important indications are the convenience of treatment in young or elderly uremic patients. Contrary to the practice in CAPD treatment, detailed documentation of dialysis adequacy and nutritional status is not routinely done in patients undergoing APD treatment in most Asian Pacific countries. In conclusion, APD is an underdeveloped treatment modality in the renal replacement programs of Asian Pacific countries. The low utilization of APD is clearly influenced by non medical factors including government reimbursement policy and the cost of PD machines. (+info)
Distribution of two HIV-1-resistant polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A and CCR2-64I) in East Asian and world populations and its implication in AIDS epidemiology.
Chemokine receptor CCR2 and stromal-derived factor (SDF-1) are involved in HIV infection and AIDS symptom onset. Recent cohort studies showed that point mutations in these two genes, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A, can delay AIDS onset > or = 16 years after seroconversions. The protective effect of CCR2-64I is dominant, whereas that of SDF1-3'A is recessive. SDF1-3'A homozygotes also showed possible protection against HIV-1 infection. In this study, we surveyed the frequency distributions of the two alleles at both loci in world populations, with emphasis on those in east Asia. The CCR2-64I frequencies do not vary significantly in the different continents, having a range of 0.1-0.2 in most populations. A decreasing cline of the CCR2-64I frequency from north to south was observed in east Asia. In contrast, the distribution of SDF1-3'A in world populations varies substantially, and the highest frequency was observed in Oceanian populations. Moreover, an increasing cline of the SDF1-3'A frequency from north to south was observed in east Asia. The relative hazard values were computed to evaluate the risk of AIDS onset on the basis of two-locus genotypes in the east Asian and world populations. (+info)
Y-Chromosome evidence for a northward migration of modern humans into Eastern Asia during the last Ice Age.
The timing and nature of the arrival and the subsequent expansion of modern humans into eastern Asia remains controversial. Using Y-chromosome biallelic markers, we investigated the ancient human-migration patterns in eastern Asia. Our data indicate that southern populations in eastern Asia are much more polymorphic than northern populations, which have only a subset of the southern haplotypes. This pattern indicates that the first settlement of modern humans in eastern Asia occurred in mainland Southeast Asia during the last Ice Age, coinciding with the absence of human fossils in eastern Asia, 50,000-100,000 years ago. After the initial peopling, a great northward migration extended into northern China and Siberia. (+info)
Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from countries in the western pacific region.
A total of 422 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from eight countries were subjected to IS6110 and IS1081 DNA fingerprinting by means of restriction fragment analysis to characterize M. tuberculosis strains from each country. Chinese, Mongolian, Hong Kong, Filipino, and Korean isolates had comparatively more copies of IS6110 (proportion with eight or more copies; 95% +/- 5%), while Thai, Malaysian, and Vietnamese isolates had fewer copies (proportion with eight or more copies, 60% +/- 4%). We found a number of novel IS1081 types in this study. One IS1081 type was present in 56% of Filipino isolates, had a specific 6.6-kb PvuII fragment in its IS6110 DNA fingerprint, and was termed the "Filipino family." The IS1081 types of Thai isolates had interposing characteristics between the characteristics of northeastern Asian and southeastern Asian IS1081 types. A 1.3-kb single-copy IS6110 fragment was found only in Vietnamese M. tuberculosis isolates. Although M. tuberculosis isolates from each country had comparatively similar characteristics depending on the classification factor, each country's isolates showed characteristic DNA fingerprints and differed slightly from the isolates from the other countries in either the mode number of IS6110 copies or the distribution of IS1081 types. (+info)
Molecular epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori: separation of H. pylori from East Asian and non-Asian countries.
The predominant H. pylori strain circulating among geographic locations differs with regard to the genomic structure. This study determined whether structural subtypes of the cagA 3' repeat region could be used to identify the population of origin of H. pylori isolates. We examined 600 cagA-positive H. pylori (Colombia, 100; USA, 100; France, 100; Canada, 20; Italy, 20; Korea, 100; Japan, 100; Hong Kong, 20; Taiwan, 20; Vietnam, 20). The cagA 3' region was amplified by PCR using primers specific to Japanese and Western 3' cagA gene sequences. PCR using Japanese cagA primers resulted in PCR products in 99-6 % of strains from East Asia but no non-Asian strains. Conversely, PCR using Western cagA primers resulted in amplicons in 100% of non-Asian strains, and only one from East Asia. cagA genotyping is useful for molecular epidemiological studies as strains can be completely separated by differences in the cagA 3' region. (+info)
Haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium at the phenylalanine hydroxylase locus, PAH, in a global representation of populations.
Because defects in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) cause phenylketonuria (PKU), PAH was studied for normal polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium soon after the gene was cloned. Studies in the 1980s concentrated on European populations in which PKU was common and showed that haplotype-frequency variation exists between some regions of the world. In European populations, linkage disequilibrium generally was found not to exist between RFLPs at opposite ends of the gene but was found to exist among the RFLPs clustered at each end. We have now undertaken the first global survey of normal variation and disequilibrium across the PAH gene. Four well-mapped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning approximately 75 kb, two near each end of the gene, were selected to allow linkage disequilibrium across most of the gene to be examined. These SNPs were studied as PCR-RFLP markers in samples of, on average, 50 individuals for each of 29 populations, including, for the first time, multiple populations from Africa and from the Americas. All four sites are polymorphic in all 29 populations. Although all but 5 of the 16 possible haplotypes reach frequencies >5% somewhere in the world, no haplotype was seen in all populations. Overall linkage disequilibrium is highly significant in all populations, but disequilibrium between the opposite ends is significant only in Native American populations and in one African population. This study demonstrates that the physical extent of linkage disequilibrium can differ substantially among populations from different regions of the world, because of both ancient genetic drift in the ancestor common to a large regional group of modern populations and recent genetic drift affecting individual populations. (+info)