Retention of mercurial preservatives in desiccated biological products.
A variety of bacterins, vaccines, and antisera retained greater than 90% of their original level of mercurial preservative after lyophilization, and this might influence certain uses of these products. (+info)
Early thimerosal exposure and neuropsychological outcomes at 7 to 10 years.
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that early exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative used in vaccines and immune globulin preparations, is associated with neuropsychological deficits in children. METHODS: We enrolled 1047 children between the ages of 7 and 10 years and administered standardized tests assessing 42 neuropsychological outcomes. (We did not assess autism-spectrum disorders.) Exposure to mercury from thimerosal was determined from computerized immunization records, medical records, personal immunization records, and parent interviews. Information on potential confounding factors was obtained from the interviews and medical charts. We assessed the association between current neuropsychological performance and exposure to mercury during the prenatal period, the neonatal period (birth to 28 days), and the first 7 months of life. RESULTS: Among the 42 neuropsychological outcomes, we detected only a few significant associations with exposure to mercury from thimerosal. The detected associations were small and almost equally divided between positive and negative effects. Higher prenatal mercury exposure was associated with better performance on one measure of language and poorer performance on one measure of attention and executive functioning. Increasing levels of mercury exposure from birth to 7 months were associated with better performance on one measure of fine motor coordination and on one measure of attention and executive functioning. Increasing mercury exposure from birth to 28 days was associated with poorer performance on one measure of speech articulation and better performance on one measure of fine motor coordination. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support a causal association between early exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines and immune globulins and deficits in neuropsychological functioning at the age of 7 to 10 years. (+info)
Mercury levels in newborns and infants after receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines.
Sensitive determination method for mercury ion, methyl-, ethyl-, and phenyl-mercury in water and biological samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.
A sensitive determination method for mercury speciation analysis was developed. Four mercury species, mercury ion, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and phenylmercury, were complexed with emetine-dithiocarbamate (emetine-CS(2)), and then injected onto a HPLC instrument coupled with a tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence detection system. The emetine-CS(2) complexing agent was effectively used to measure the concentration in addition to serving as a separation and detection reagent. The calibration curves for these mercury complexes were linear in the range of 0.050 - 10 mug L(-1) (as Hg). The limit of detection for (emetine-CS(2))(2)Hg, emetine-CS(2)-methylmercury, emetine-CS(2)-ethylmercury, and emetine-CS(2)-phenylmercury were 30, 17, 21, and 22 ng L(-1), respectively. The sensitivity of this method enables the determination of mercury species in water samples at sub-ppb levels. Furthermore, the method was applied to biological samples in combination with acid leaching and liquid-liquid extraction using emetine-CS(2) as an extraction reagent. The determination results were in good agreement with the values of the certified reference materials. (+info)