Rider injury rates and emergency medical services at equestrian events.
BACKGROUND: Horse riding is a hazardous pastime, with a number of studies documenting high rates of injury and death among horse riders in general. This study focuses on the injury experience of cross country event riders, a high risk subset of horse riders. METHOD: Injury data were collected at a series of 35 equestrian events in South Australia from 1990 to 1998. RESULTS: Injury rates were found to be especially high among event riders, with frequent falls, injuries, and even deaths. The highest injury rates were among the riders competing at the highest levels. CONCLUSION: There is a need for skilled emergency medical services at equestrian events. (+info)
Gastric rupture secondary to successful Heimlich manoeuvre.
A fatal case of gastric rupture following the Heimlich manoeuvre is reported. This life-threatening complication has only been reported previously in seven patients with a high mortality rate. All patients should be assessed immediately following this manoeuvre for any potentially life-threatening complications. (+info)
"First aid for scalds" campaign: reaching Sydney's Chinese, Vietnamese, and Arabic speaking communities.
OBJECTIVES: As a serious yet preventable problem, scald injuries in children have been a priority for prevention in Australia and other developed countries. Not only can the occurrence of scalds be prevented, but immediate first aid treatment offers an effective method for secondary prevention, reducing the severity of scalds. Despite the success of scald prevention initiatives, local evidence suggested that first aid knowledge was lacking in some minority ethnic groups. To redress this gap, the "First Aid for Scalds" campaign for those from a non-English speaking background was specifically targeted to three ethnic groups (Vietnamese, Chinese, and Arabic), with the aim of increasing the proportions of parents and caregivers who had correct knowledge of first aid treatment for scalds. The primary strategy was a media campaign, including advertisements on ethnic radio and in ethnic newspapers. METHODS: The evaluation design included formative research and impact evaluation. The impact evaluation study involved random population based telephone surveys with each of the three language groups, before and after the campaign, to assess the reach and effectiveness of the campaign. RESULTS: After the campaign, there were significant increases in the proportion of people who knew the correct first aid treatment for scalds. There were substantial variations in campaign recall and knowledge between each of the three language groups. The largest improvement was found in the Vietnamese group. CONCLUSION: The association between campaign recall and increase in correct knowledge, and the absence of any similar interventions during the campaign period, give credence to the conclusion that the changes observed were a result of the campaign. The results demonstrate the value of community based injury prevention campaigns specifically targeting linguistically diverse communities. (+info)
An evaluation of the effectiveness of the Injury Minimization Programme for Schools (IMPS).
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an injury prevention programme (Injury Minimization Programme for Schools, IMPS) on children's primary and secondary prevention, and basic life support, knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviour. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomised matched control. SETTING: Radcliffe NHS Trust and primary and middle schools in Oxfordshire, UK. SUBJECTS: 1,200 year 6 children (10 and 11 years old); 600 received IMPS, a primary and secondary injury prevention programme taught in the school and hospital environments; 600 children in the control group received no planned intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Safety knowledge, measured using a quiz. Resuscitation skills and behaviour observed and assessed using a simulated emergency scenario. Attitude and hypothetical behaviour towards safety assessed by the "draw and write" technique. RESULTS: Before intervention, both groups had similar levels of knowledge. Five months after the intervention, significantly more IMPS trained children demonstrated a greater increase in knowledge in administering first aid and the correct procedure for making a call to the emergency services. They also demonstrated better basic life support techniques-for example, mouth-to-mouth and cardiac compressions. They identified more subtle dangers, were more likely to seek help, and tell others that their behaviour was dangerous. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the benefits of the IMPS programme on injury prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. (+info)
Ignorance of post-exposure prophylaxis guidelines following HIV needlestick injury may increase the risk of seroconversion.
Needlestick injury is relatively common amongst healthcare workers, particularly those, such as anaesthetists, who regularly perform invasive procedures. The risk of seroconversion following needlestick injury may be reduced by knowledge of body fluids that are high risk and knowledge of post-exposure prophylaxis following possible HIV-contaminated needlestick injury. A structured questionnaire was used to establish knowledge regarding high HIV risk body fluids and measures to be taken following needlestick injury in anaesthetists working in a large teaching hospital. Completed questionnaires were obtained from all 76 anaesthetists working in the department (39 consultant, 37 trainee/non-consultant). Only 45.2% correctly identified high-risk body fluids. Sixty-eight per cent of anaesthetists knew the appropriate first aid measures to be taken following needlestick injury. Only 15% of anaesthetists were aware that post-exposure prophylaxis (oral medication) should be administered within 1 h of injury. This study reveals a surprisingly poor knowledge of high-risk body fluids and action to be taken following needlestick injury. Timely post-exposure prophylaxis, after needlestick exposure to high-risk body fluids, is believed to reduce the risk of seroconversion to HIV. Ignorance of this may increase the risk of seroconversion to HIV for anaesthetists and other healthcare professionals. (+info)
Frozen chips: an unusual cause of severe frostbite injury.
A case of severe frostbite injury to the right foot is presented. This was caused by the inappropriate application of a bag of frozen chips to the foot in an attempt to ease non-specific pain. No specific acute traumatic injury was identified. As the patient was a teacher of physical education, the pain had initially been assumed to originate from a minor musculoskeletal injury. Full recovery ensued after surgical excision of necrotic tissue and split skin grafting. The danger of inappropriate overenthusiastic use of ice packs or other frozen material to treat soft tissue injuries is emphasised. The need for education to prevent similar future injuries is discussed. (+info)
Sports doctors' resuscitation skills under examination: do they take it seriously?
As 64% of sports medicine doctors were unable to show proficiency at basic life support and assessment and management of a seriously injured patient with a potential spinal injury in the last two examinations for a University of Bath diploma in sports and exercise medicine, it was decided that a reminder is required of the importance of acquiring, at the very least, some basic resuscitation skills. An analysis and comment on the results from the first aid component of the examination is also presented. (+info)
Public access defibrillation: a shocking idea?
Currently, survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom is poor. Ambulance response standards require that an ambulance reach 75 per cent of cardiac arrests within 8 min. But a short time to defibrillation from the onset of collapse is a key predictor of outcome from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The Department of Health has recently implemented a lay responder defibrillation programme, with the aim of shortening this time interval for victims in public places. This initiative utilizes automated external defibrillators (AEDs), which provide written and recorded voice prompts to minimize training requirements and errors in use. Lay responder AED programmes with very short response times have reported survival to discharge rates of up to 53 per cent for patients presenting in ventricular fibrillation (VF). This compares well with the results of a meta-analysis that reported a survival rate of only 6.4 per cent for traditional defibrillator-equipped ambulance systems. The annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in England is 123 per 100,000 population. Approximately half of these present in VF, and could benefit from an AED programme. But only 16 per cent of cardiac arrests occur in a public place. It has been calculated that there are approximately 5,000 instances of VF in public places each year in England. If half of these patients can be reached and administered a first shock within 4 min of their collapse, an additional 400 victims may survive each year. Given the current investment by the DoH of 2 million pounds, this suggests a cost per life saved of approximately 505 pounds over a 10 year period. (+info)