Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue. (+info)
Carbon disulphide absorption during xanthate reagent mixing in a gold mine concentrator.
A xanthate reagent mixer at a gold mine concentrator was exposed to carbon disulphide by extensive skin contamination with xanthate powder and solution during the reagent mixing process. Absorption of carbon disulphide was confirmed by the detection of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA). Drager colorimetric tube testing during subsequent mixing recorded a maximum concentration of at least 60 ppm carbon disulphide. An illness consisting of predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms began 20 h after the exposure. Although this may have been due to carbon disulphide toxicity this is by no means certain. The need for engineering controls, impervious protective clothing and full-face respirators with particulate and organic vapour cartridges is discussed. This episode occurred at another mine site, unrelated to Mount Isa Mines Limited. (+info)
The role of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents in fatigue-induced modulation of the monosynaptic reflex in the rat.
1. The role of group III and IV afferent fibres of the lateral gastrocnemious muscle (LG) in modulating the homonymous monosynaptic reflex was investigated during muscle fatigue in spinalized rats. 2. Muscle fatigue was induced by a series of increasing tetanic electrical stimuli (85 Hz, 600 ms) delivered to the LG muscle nerve. Series consisted of increasing train numbers from 1 to 60. 3. Potentials from the spinal cord LG motor pool and from the ventral root were recorded in response to proprioceptive afferent stimulation and analysed before and during tetanic muscle activations. Both the pre- and postsynaptic waves showed an initial enhancement and, after a '12-train' series, an increasing inhibition. 4. The enhancement of the responses to muscle fatiguing stimulation disappeared after L3-L6 dorsal root section, while a partial reflex inhibition was still present. Conversely, after section of the corresponding ventral root, there was only a reduction in the inhibitory effect. 5. The monosynaptic reflex was also studied in animals in which a large number of group III and IV muscle afferents were eliminated by injecting capsaicin (10 mM) into the LG muscle. As a result of capsaicin treatment, the fatigue-induced inhibition of the pre- and postsynaptic waves disappeared, while the response enhancement remained. 6. We concluded that the monosynaptic reflex inhibition, but not the enhancement, was mediated by those group III and IV muscle afferents that are sensitive to the toxic action of capsaicin. The afferents that are responsible for the response enhancement enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root, while those responsible for the inhibition enter the spinal cord through both the ventral and dorsal roots. (+info)
Effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions in engineers in an electronics manufacturing company.
A field survey of 147 engineers (23-49 years) in an electronics manufacturing company was conducted to investigate the effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions (urinary catecholamines, heart rate variability and blood pressure). The subjects were divided into 3 groups by age: 23-29 (n = 49), 30-39 (n = 74) and 40-49 (n = 24) year groups. Subjects in each age group were further divided into shorter (SWH) and longer (LWH) working hour subgroups according to the median of weekly working hours. In the 30-39 year group, urinary noradrenaline in the afternoon for LWH was significantly lower than that for SWH and a similar tendency was found in the LF/HF ratio of heart rate variability at rest. Because these two autonomic nervous indices are related to sympathetic nervous activity, the findings suggested that sympathetic nervous activity for LWH was lower than that for SWH in the 30-39 year group. Furthermore, there were significant relationships both between long working hours and short sleeping hours, and between short sleeping hours and high complaint rates of "drowsiness and dullness" in the morning in this age group. Summarizing these results, it appeared that long working hours might lower sympathetic nervous activity due to chronic sleep deprivation. (+info)
Investigating fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. Guidelines for family physicians.
OBJECTIVE: To develop an evidence-based systematic approach to assessment of adult patients who present to family physicians complaining of fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. The guidelines present investigative options, making explicit what should be considered in all cases and what should be considered only in specific situations. They aim to provide physicians with an approach that, to the extent possible, is based on evidence so that time and cost are minimized and detection and management of the cause of the fatigue are optimized. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1997 using the key words "family practice" and "fatigue." Articles about chronic fatigue syndrome were excluded. Articles with level 3 evidence were found, but no randomized trials, cohort studies, or case-control studies were found. Articles looking specifically at the epidemiology, demographics, investigations, and diagnoses of patients with fatigue were chosen. Articles based on studies at referral and specialty centres were given less weight than those based on studies in family physicians' offices. MAIN MESSAGE: Adherence to these guidelines will decrease the cost of investigating the symptom of fatigue and optimize diagnosis and management. This needs to be proved in practice, however, and with research that produces level 1 and 2 evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Adults presenting with fatigue of less than 6 months' duration should be assessed for psychosocial causes and should have a focused history and physical examination to determine whether further investigations should be done. The guidelines outline investigations to be considered. The elderly require special consideration. These guidelines have group validation, but they need to be tested by more physicians in various locations and types of practices. (+info)
Phase I and pharmacologic study of the combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and topotecan administered intravenously every 21 days as first-line therapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of administering topotecan in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin without and with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support as first-line chemotherapy in women with incompletely resected stage III and stage IV ovarian carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Starting doses were paclitaxel 110 mg/m2 administered over 24 hours (day 1), followed by cisplatin 50 mg/m2 over 3 hours (day 2) and topotecan 0.3 mg/m2/d over 30 minutes for 5 consecutive days (days 2 to 6). Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. After encountering dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) without G-CSF support, the maximum-tolerated dose was defined as 5 microg/kg of G-CSF subcutaneously starting on day 6. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received a total of 116 courses at four different dose levels. The DLT was neutropenia. At the first dose level, all six patients experienced grade 4 myelosuppression. G-CSF support permitted further dose escalation of cisplatin and topotecan. Nonhematologic toxicities, primarily fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and neurosensory neuropathy, were observed but were generally mild. Of 15 patients assessable for response, nine had a complete response, four achieved a partial response, and two had stable disease. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia was the DLT of this combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and topotecan. The recommended phase II dose is paclitaxel 110 mg/m2 (day 1), followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 (day 2) and topotecan 0.3 mg/m2/d (days 2 to 6) with G-CSF support repeated every 3 weeks. (+info)
Manganese sulfate-dependent glycosylation of endogenous glycoproteins in human skeletal muscle is catalyzed by a nonglucose 6-P-dependent glycogen synthase and not glycogenin.
Glycogenin, a Mn2+-dependent, self-glucosylating protein, is considered to catalyze the initial glucosyl transfer steps in glycogen biogenesis. To study the physiologic significance of this enzyme, measurements of glycogenin mediated glucose transfer to endogenous trichloroacetic acid precipitable material (protein-bound glycogen, i.e., glycoproteins) in human skeletal muscle were attempted. Although glycogenin protein was detected in muscle extracts, activity was not, even after exercise that resulted in marked glycogen depletion. Instead, a MnSO4-dependent glucose transfer to glycoproteins, inhibited by glycogen and UDP-pyridoxal (which do not affect glycogenin), and unaffected by CDP (a potent inhibitor of glycogenin), was consistently detected. MnSO4-dependent activity increased in concert with glycogen synthase fractional activity after prolonged exercise, and the MnSO4-dependent enzyme stimulated glucosylation of glycoproteins with molecular masses lower than those glucosylated by glucose 6-P-dependent glycogen synthase. Addition of purified glucose 6-P-dependent glycogen synthase to the muscle extract did not affect MnSO4-dependent glucose transfer, whereas glycogen synthase antibody completely abolished MnSO4-dependent activity. It is concluded that: (1) MnSO4-dependent glucose transfer to glycoproteins is catalyzed by a nonglucose 6-P-dependent form of glycogen synthase; (2) MnSO4-dependent glycogen synthase has a greater affinity for low molecular mass glycoproteins and may thus play a more important role than glucose 6-P-dependent glycogen synthase in the initial stages of glycogen biogenesis; and (3) glycogenin is generally inactive in human muscle in vivo. (+info)
Fatigue in advanced cancer: a prospective controlled cross-sectional study.
Uncontrolled studies have reported that fatigue is a common symptom among patients with advanced cancer. It is also a frequent complaint among the general population. Simply asking cancer patients whether or not they feel fatigued does not distinguish between the 'background' level of this symptom in the community and any 'excess' arising as a result of illness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fatigue among palliative care inpatients in comparison with a control group of age and sex-matched volunteers without cancer. In addition, the correlates of fatigue were investigated. The prevalence of 'severe subjective fatigue' (defined as fatigue greater than that experienced by 95% of the control group) was found to be 75%. Patients were malnourished, had diminished muscle function and were suffering from a number of physical and mental symptoms. The severity of fatigue was unrelated to age, sex, diagnosis, presence or site of metastases, anaemia, dose of opioid or steroid, any of the haematological or biochemical indices (except urea), nutritional status, voluntary muscle function, or mood. A multivariate analysis found that fatigue severity was significantly associated with pain and dypnoea scores in the patients, and with the symptoms of anxiety and depression in the controls. The authors conclude that subjective fatigue is both prevalent and severe among patients with advanced cancer. The causes of this symptom remain obscure. Further work is required in order to determine if the associations reported between fatigue and pain and between fatigue and dyspnoea are causal or coincidental. (+info)