Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.
Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. (+info)
Distribution of cells immunopositive for AM-3K, a novel monoclonal antibody recognizing human macrophages, in normal and diseased tissues of dogs, cats, horses, cattle, pigs, and rabbits.
The monoclonal antibody AM-3K, which was developed using human pulmonary macrophages as the immunogen, immunocytochemically labels most human macrophages except for blood monocytes and dendritic cell populations. AM-3K also shows cross-reactivity in some animal species. To evaluate the usefulness of AM-3K, the present study investigated the detailed distribution of AM-3K-immunopositive macrophages in normal and diseased tissues of dogs, cats, horses, cattle, pigs, and rabbits. Zamboni's solution-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were the most available for the immunocytochemistry with AM-3K. In all animal species examined, AM-3K labeled most macrophages in splenic red pulp, lymph node sinuses and thymus, and tissue macrophages in the interstitium of various organs and sites such as the kidneys, lungs, heart, pancreas, intestines, and skin. Alveolar macrophages and perivascular microglial cells were also immunoreactive for AM-3K. Interestingly, Kupffer cells of dogs, cats, and horses were labeled for AM-3K, but those of cattle, pigs, and rabbits were not. Furthermore, in tumor tissues and inflammatory lesions such as liver fibrosis and encephalomalacia that were obtained from dogs, infiltrating macrophages were stained with AM-3K, but not all infiltrating macrophages reacted to AM-3K. In addition, only 30-50% of pulmonary and peritoneal macrophages obtained from cats and dogs were reactive for AM-3K. AM-3K did not react with blood monocytes, dendritic cell populations, and osteoclasts. These observations indicate that AM-3K specifically labels most exudate and tissue macrophages in the animal species examined. However, the expression of antigens recognized by AM-3K on macrophages may be dependent on differential maturation stages or different functions evoked by some conditions. AM-3K immunoreaction products were seen on the cytoplasmic membrane of macrophages by immunoelectron microscopy. AM-3K would be useful for detection of macrophage populations in the animal species examined here. (+info)
Hamartomatous gastric polyposis in a patient with tuberous sclerosis.
A 42-year-old female diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis was found to have multiple polyps in the fundus of stomach. On histologic examination, the lesions were hamartomatous polyps. In tuberous sclerosis, many lesions occur in multiple organs and there are several reports about the frequent association of hamartomatous polyps of the colon. However, gastric manifestation of tuberous sclerosis has not been established probably due to its asymptomatic nature. This is the first report of multiple gastric hamartomatous polyposis in patient with tuberous sclerosis. (+info)
Spontaneous thrombosis of deep cerebral veins: a complication of arteriovenous malformation.
An uncommon type of stroke in children is presented. An intracranial arteriovenous malformation in a 13-year-old boy spontaneously occluded about 22 months after surgical intervention. Precipitating factors, such as bacterial infections, could not be demonstrated in this patient, who had been attending school since the time of the craniotomy. The histological features of venous encephalomalacia in the galenic territory are contrasted with hemorrhagic encephalomalacia as seen after arterial occlusions: in the former, hemorrhages are more widespread and edema is more pronounced. (+info)
Discovery and occurrence of the fumonisins: a historical perspective.
This article describes the events leading to the discovery of the fumonisins in South Africa in 1988 and highlights the first 10 years (1988-1998) of fumonisin research. The predominant fungus isolated from moldy corn implicated in a field outbreak of equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) in South Africa in 1970 was Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme). This fungus was also prevalent in moldy home-grown corn consumed by people in high-incidence areas of esophageal cancer (EC) in the Transkei region of South Africa. Culture material on corn of F. verticillioides strain MRC 826, which was isolated from moldy corn in Transkei, was shown to cause ELEM in horses, porcine pulmonary edema (PPE) syndrome in pigs, and liver cancer in rats. A short-term cancer initiation/promotion assay in rat liver was used to purify the carcinogen(s) in the culture material. These efforts finally met with success when fumonisins B1 and B2 novel mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity in rat liver, were isolated from culture material of F. verticillioides MRC 826 at the Programme on Mycotoxins and Experimental Carcinogenesis of the Medical Research Council in Tygerberg, South Africa. Following the elucidation of the chemical structure of the fumonisins, these carcinogenic mycotoxins were shown to occur naturally in moldy corn in Transkei. Shortly thereafter, high levels of fumonisins in the 1989 U.S. corn crop resulted in large-scale field outbreaks of ELEM and PPE in horses and pigs, respectively, in the United States. Subsequently the fumonisins were found to occur naturally in corn worldwide, including corn consumed as the staple diet by people at high risk for EC in Transkei and China. These findings, together with the fact that the fumonisins cause field outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in animals, are carcinogenic in rats, and disrupt sphingolipid metabolism, have resulted in much worldwide interest in these compounds during the first 10 years after the discovery of the fumonisins in 1988. (+info)
Epinephrine induced hyperglycemia in bulls and its relationship to polioencephalomalacia.
Data on blood glucose concentration in bulls affected with molasses associated polioencephalomalacia are controversial. It has been suggested that the brain lesions are related to a "hypoglycemic state" during the development of polioencephalomalacia. This paper reports the mobilization of glucose by means of the epinephrine test in three bulls fed two diets, one forage based and the other molasses based. The results showed significantly greater hyperglycemic responses in the animals during the molasses diet than during the forage one. This probably means that glucose stores (as glycogen) are higher in cattle consuming molasses than those consuming forage. Such hepatic glucose output is in disagreement with the hypoglycemia theory as the cause of the early stages of brain lesions and focuses the probable cause as being related to glucose utilization. (+info)
Atypical manifestation of dural arteriovenous fistula.
A case of secondary dural arteriovenous fistula presenting as infantile stroke, in a fifteen month old boy, is reported. The initial impression on CT scan in this case was misleading, due to the atypical appearance of the pathological periventricular blood vessels, interpreted as periventricular calcification. (+info)
Leigh's disease: significance of the biochemical changes in brain.
Analysis of five brains from patients with Leigh's disease demonstrates an accumulation of thiamine pyrophosphate and a deficiency of thiamine triphosphate. The enzyme which converts thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine triphosphate was normally active in two of these brains, suggesting that the inhibitor found in Leigh's disease is probably producing the observed neurochemical changes. Reasons for the histological similarity between Leigh's and Wernicke's diseases are suggested. (+info)