Maternal peripartum complications associated with vaginal group B streptococci colonization.
The study was done to determine the risk of clinically diagnosed intra-amniotic infection (IAI) and postpartum endometritis (PPE) associated with vaginal group B streptococci (GBS) colonization. Pregnant women were enrolled in a cross-sectional, observational study from 1992 to 1996 in Houston (n=908), Seattle (n=2676), and Pittsburgh (n=4338). Swab samples were obtained from the lower vagina of participants at admission for delivery and inoculated into selective broth and onto blood agar media. At the combined centers, 2.9% of the women (231/7922) had IAI, and 2.0% (157/7922) had PPE. The risk of IAI was higher for women with heavy GBS colonization (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.1-3.7) than for those with light colonization (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.7-1.8). The risk of GBS-associated PPE was not influenced by density of colonization (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.7). These findings provide further evidence that GBS is associated with maternal intrapartum complications. (+info)
Histological characteristics of canine deciduoma induced by intrauterine inoculation of E. coli suspension.
Canine deciduoma could be induced in the diestrous uterus by an intrauterine inoculation of a culture suspension of E. coli originally isolated from naturally occurring canine pyometra. These deciduomas had the same histological findings as those of naturally occurring canine pyometra with so called "Swiss cheese endometrium". This suggests a possibility that the canine pyometra is a kind of naturally occurring decidual reaction (deciduoma) induced by one of several triggers such as bacterial infection. (+info)
Single daily dosing of gentamicin: pharmacokinetic comparison of two dosing methodologies for postpartum endometritis.
OBJECTIVE: We compared the pharmacokinetics of two methods for dosing gentamicin for the treatment of postpartum endometritis with the goal of achieving adequate peak serum concentrations (>12 mg/L) and prolonged trough levels below 2 mg/L. METHODS: Group-I subjects (n = 5) received intravenous gentamicin, 5 mg/kg per total body weight over 60 min., with a maximum dose of 500 mg. Group-II subjects (n = 17) were dosed intravenously according to the following formula: Dose = desired peak concentration (fixed at 14 mg/L) * (volume of distribution, i.e., 0.35 L/kg) * adjusted body weight (in kilograms). Serum gentamicin levels were obtained 1 hr. and 8-12 hr. after infusion of the second dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the subjects in each group were calculated according to standard formulas. RESULTS: Subjects in Group I had significantly higher doses and peak drug concentrations (P < 0.01), while in Group II, 76% of patients had peak levels less than desired (<12 mg/L). Both groups maintained trough levels of <2 mg/L in excess of 12 hr. CONCLUSIONS: Changing to the adjusted body weight formula for Group I, while maintaining a dose between 4 and 5 mg/kg, would reduce excessive peak concentrations. Using a calculated volume of distribution of 0.4 L/kg in Group II would improve peak serum concentrations to the desired levels. Both dosing regimens ensure adequate aminoglycoside pharmacokinetic parameters and avoid the need for monitoring serial serum drug concentrations, provided the expected clinical response is also achieved. While the first dosing formula is simpler to calculate, the second dosing formula allows for more individualized dosing considerations. (+info)
Prophylactic cefazolin in amnioinfusions administered for meconium-stained amniotic fluid.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if amnioinfusion with an antibiotic solution decreased the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and puerperal endometritis in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. METHODS: Patients in labor at 36 weeks of gestation or greater with singleton pregnancies and meconium-stained amniotic fluid were randomized to receive either cefazolin, 1 g/1,000 mL, of normal saline (n = 90) or normal saline (n = 93) amnioinfusion. Rates of clinically diagnosed chorioamnionitis and endometritis and of suspected and culture-proven neonatal infection were determined. RESULTS: Between the study and control groups, the incidences of clinical chorioamnionitis (7.8% vs. 8.6%), endometritis (2.4% vs. 3.5%), aggregate intrauterine infection (10.0% vs. 11.8%), suspected neonatal infection (17.8% vs. 21.5%), and proven neonatal infection (0.0% vs. 2.2%) were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic use of cefazolin in amnioinfusions did not significantly reduce rates of maternal or neonatal infection in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. (+info)
DISCERN: an instrument for judging the quality of written consumer health information on treatment choices.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a short instrument, called DISCERN, which will enable patients and information providers to judge the quality of written information about treatment choices. DISCERN will also facilitate the production of new, high quality, evidence-based consumer health information. DESIGN: An expert panel, representing a range of expertise in consumer health information, generated criteria from a random sample of information for three medical conditions with varying degrees of evidence: myocardial infarction, endometriosis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. A graft instrument, based on this analysis, was tested by the panel on a random sample of new material for the same three conditions. The panel re-drafted the instrument to take account of the results of the test. The DISCERN instrument was finally tested by a national sample of 15 information providers and 13 self help group members on a random sample of leaflets from 19 major national self help organisations. Participants also completed an 8 item questionnaire concerning the face and content validity of the instrument. RESULTS: Chance corrected agreement (weighted kappa) for the overall quality rating was kappa = 0.53 (95% CI kappa = 0.48 to kappa = 0.59) among the expert panel, kappa = 0.40 (95% CI kappa = 0.36 to kappa = 0.43) among information providers, and kappa = 0.23 (95% CI kappa = 0.19 to kappa = 0.27) among self help group members. Higher agreement levels were associated with experience of using the instrument and with professional knowledge of consumer health information. Levels of agreement varied across individual items on the instrument, reflecting the need for subjectivity in rating certain criteria. The trends in levels of agreement were similar among all groups. The final instrument consisted of 15 questions plus an overall quality rating. Responses to the questionnaire after the final testing revealed the instrument to have good face and content validity and to be generally applicable. CONCLUSIONS: DISCERN is a reliable and valid instrument for judging the quality of written consumer health information. While some subjectivity is required for rating certain criteria, the findings demonstrate that the instrument can be applied by experienced users and providers of health information to discriminate between publications of high and low quality. The instrument will also be of benefit to patients, though its use will be improved by training. (+info)
Development of a PCR test for rapid diagnosis of contagious equine metritis.
In order to establish a rapid diagnostic method for contagious equine metritis (CEM), we developed and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Species-specific PCR primer sets were derived from the DNA sequence of a cloned DNA fragment of Taylorella equigenitalis that did not hybridize with the genome of a taxomonically related species, Oligella urethralis. Single step PCR with primer set P1-N2 and two-step semi-nested PCR with primer sets P1-N2 and P2-N2 detected as low as 100 and 10 CFU of the bacteria, respectively. Single-step PCR detected T. equigenitalis from genital swabs of experimentally infected mares with sensitivity comparable to that of bacterial isolation. Furthermore, two-step PCR was more sensitive than the culture method. Upon examination of field samples, 12 out of 3,123 samples were positive by single-step PCR while only 2 were positive by bacterial culture. The 12 PCR-positive samples originated from 5 mares, of which 3 animals were considered to be carriers based on previous bacteriologic and serologic diagnoses for CEM. The PCR test described in this study would provide a specific and highly sensitive tool for the rapid diagnosis of CEM. (+info)
Human endometrial endothelial cells: isolation, characterization, and inflammatory-mediated expression of tissue factor and type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor.
Binding of Ulex europaeus lectin to microvessels was used to isolate endothelial cells from cycling human endometrium. Cultured human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) exhibited endothelial cell-specific characteristics such as tube formation on a basement membrane matrix and sequestration of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Markers for potentially contaminating epithelial, stromal, smooth muscle, and bone marrow-derived cells were not detected in the HEEC cultures. Basal and proinflammatory-stimulated immunostaining profiles for endothelial cell-specific adhesion markers, as exemplified by Von Willebrand's factor and E-selectin, were similar for cultured HEECs and human umbilical venous cord endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, HUVECs expressed several extracellular matrix proteins that were absent from cultured HEECs. In the latter, the protein kinase C agonist phorbol myristate acetate transiently enhanced tissue factor (TF) mRNA levels and elicited a more prolonged elevation in TF protein levels, but did not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA and protein levels. Inappropriate expression of TF, which initiates hemostasis by generating thrombin, and of PAI-1, which regulates hemostasis by acting as the primary inhibitor of fibrinolysis, can each lead to thrombosis. The differential regulation of TF and PAI-1 expression revealed in the current study emphasizes the importance of using HEECs to evaluate mechanisms regulating the hemostatic/thrombotic balance in human endometrium. (+info)
Prevalence and clinical significance of postpartum endometritis and wound infection.
OBJECTIVE: To correlate clinical variables (gestational age, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, history of previous cesarean sections, fetal distress, perinatal mortality, postpartum anemia, Apgar score < or = 3 at 1 minute and < or = 7 at 5 minutes, and instrumental delivery) with postpartum endometritis (PPE) and wound infection. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of the outcome of 75,947 term and preterm singleton deliveries; vaginally and by cesarean section from 1989-1997. RESULTS: The prevalence of PPE after vaginal deliveries was 0.17% (120/68,273). Gestational age of less than 37 weeks, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, instrumental deliveries, neonatal mortality, postpartum anemia, and Apgar scores of < 7 after 5 minutes were significantly associated with PPE. Gestational diabetes and an Apgar score of < 3 after 1 minute showed similar frequency with and without PPE. The prevalence of PPE after cesarean section was 2.63% (202/7,677). Preterm cesarean sections, history of previous cesarean sections, anemia, and low Apgar scores were seen more frequently with PPE than without. The incidence of cesarean delivery with gestational diabetes mellitus, fetal distress, and perinatal mortality was similar in presence and absence of PPE. The rate of wound infection after cesarean section was 3.97% (318/7,995). Gestational diabetes mellitus, history of previous cesarean deliveries, and low Apgar scores were significantly more frequent with than without wound infection. Gestational age, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, perinatal mortality, and postpartum anemia were not associated with wound infection. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of the aforementioned associations may prevent and shorten hospital stay by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. (+info)