Improved functional properties of the ovoinhibitor by conjugating with galactomannan.
The chicken egg white ovoinhibitor, a multi-type proteinase inhibitor, was conjugated with galactomannan through the Maillard reaction in a controlled dry heating state at 60 degrees C and 65% relative humidity. The formation of an ovoinhibitor-galactomannan conjugate during dry heating was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The resulting ovoinhibitor-galactomannan conjugate showed almost the same inhibitory activity toward trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase as that of the untreated ovoinhibitor, while the conjugate showed stronger heat stability and better emulsifying properties than the untreated ovoinhibitor. These results suggest that the ovoinhibitor-galactomannan conjugate can be used as a protease inhibitor having heat stability and outstanding emulsifying properties for industrial application. (+info)
Structure and characterization of flavolipids, a novel class of biosurfactants produced by Flavobacterium sp. strain MTN11.
Herein we report the structure and selected properties of a new class of biosurfactants that we have named the flavolipids. The flavolipids exhibit a unique polar moiety that features citric acid and two cadaverine molecules. Flavolipids were produced by a soil isolate, Flavobacterium sp. strain MTN11 (accession number AY162137), during growth in mineral salts medium, with 2% glucose as the sole carbon and energy source. MTN11 produced a mixture of at least 37 flavolipids ranging from 584 to 686 in molecular weight (MW). The structure of the major component (23%; MW = 668) was determined to be 4-[[5-(7-methyl-(E)-2-octenoylhydroxyamino)pentyl]amino]-2-[2-[[5-(7-methyl-(E)-2 -octenoylhydroxyamino)pentyl]amino]-2-oxoethyl]-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid. The partially purified flavolipid mixture isolated from strain MTN11 exhibited a critical micelle concentration of 300 mg/liter and reduced surface tension to 26.0 mN/m, indicating strong surfactant activity. The flavolipid mixture was a strong and stable emulsifier even at concentrations as low as 19 mg/liter. It was also an effective solubilizing agent, and in a biodegradation study, it enhanced hexadecane mineralization by two isolates, MTN11 (100-fold) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (2.5-fold), over an 8-day period. The flavolipid-cadmium stability constant was measured to be 3.61, which is comparable to that for organic ligands such as oxalic acid and acetic acid. In summary, the flavolipids represent a new class of biosurfactants that have potential for use in a variety of biotechnological and industrial applications. (+info)
Enhancing effect of lipids and emulsifiers on the accumulation of quercetin metabolites in blood plasma after the short-term ingestion of onion by rats.
The effects of co-ingested lipids and emulsifiers on the accumulation of quercetin metabolites in blood plasma after the short-term ingestion of onion by rats were investigated. Plasma extracts of rats that had been fed onion-containing diets for one and two weeks were analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection after a treatment with sulfatase/beta-glucuronidase. Almost all of the quercetin metabolites in the plasma were sulfate/glucuronide conjugates of quercetin and isorhamnetin. More than 4.6% (w/w) of soybean oil in the diets significantly enhanced the accumulation of quercetin metabolites in the plasma. Fish oil and beef tallow increased this to an extent similar to that with soybean oil, and lecithin was more effective than the other three lipids. Two emulsifiers, sodium caseinate and sucrose fatty acid ester, also showed an enhancing effect on the accumulation of quercetin metabolites. These results indicate that co-ingested lipids and emulsifiers could enhance the bioavailability of quercetin glucosides in onion. (+info)
A novel emulsion mixture for in vitro compartmentalization of transcription and translation in the rabbit reticulocyte system.
Emulsion formulations used for in vitro compartmentalization (IVC) methods were found to be incompatible with protein expression in the rabbit reticulocyte (RRL) system, causing rapid discoloration and translation shutdown. Here we identify possible causes and describe a novel water-in-oil emulsion which abolished discoloration and allowed high-level in-emulsion expression of active luciferase and human telomerase using the RRL. This novel emulsion greatly expands the range of potential protein targets for IVC. (+info)
The effects of emulsifying agents on disposition of lipid-soluble drugs included in fat emulsion.
The uses for drug delivery systems of two soybean oil fat emulsions prepared with an emulsifying agent, phosphatidyl choline (PC) or Pluronic F-127 (PLU), were examined comparatively in vivo and in vitro. In the presence of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in vitro, the mean particle size of the PLU emulsion changed less than that of the PC emulsion. The production of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) from the PLU emulsion in the presence of LPL was smaller than that from the PC emulsion. These in vitro results indicate that the PLU emulsion is more stable than the PC emulsion. Plasma NEFA concentration following intravenous administration of the emulsions decreased with time for the PC emulsion, but was kept lower and constant for the PLU emulsion, supporting the in vitro stability data. The order of plasma cyclosporine A (CsA) concentration following intravenous administration in the above two emulsions and the mixed solution of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) and dimethylamide (DMA) in rats was PLU emulsion>PC emulsion>PEG/DMA solution. The plasma concentration was maintained higher and tissue distribution lower for the PLU emulsion than for other formulations. The uptake of oil violet (OV) into the rat parenchymal cells from the PLU emulsion was approximately half that from the PC emulsion, but the uptake into the Kupffer cells was almost equal in both emulsions. In conclusion, these emulsifying agents can control plasma elimination and tissue distribution of lipophilic drugs included in the emulsion. The use of the emulsion formulation makes it possible to avoid side effects through the reduction of drug uptake into non-targeted tissues. (+info)
Formulation design of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems for improved oral bioavailability of celecoxib.
Celecoxib is a hydrophobic and highly permeable drug belonging to class II of biopharmaceutics classification system. Low aqueous solubility of celecoxib leads to high variability in absorption after oral administration. Cohesiveness, low bulk density and compressibility, and poor flow properties of celecoxib impart complications in it's processing into solid dosage forms. To improve the solubility and bioavailability and to get faster onset of action of celecoxib, the self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed. Composition of SMEDDS was optimized using simplex lattice mixture design. Dissolution efficiency, t(85%), absorbance of diluted SMEDDS formulation and solubility of celecoxib in diluted formulation were chosen as response variables. The SMEDDS formulation optimized via mixture design consisted of 49.5% PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides, 40.5% mixture of Tween20 and Propylene glycol monocaprylic ester (3:1) and 10% celecoxib, which showed significantly higher rate and extent of absorption than conventional capsule. The relative bioavailability of the SMEDDS formulation to the conventional capsule was 132%. The present study demonstrated the suitability of mixture design to optimize the compositions for SMEDDS. The developed SMEDDS formulations have the potential to minimize the variability in absorption and to provide rapid onset of action of celecoxib. (+info)
Effect of formulation variables on preparation and evaluation of gelled self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of ketoprofen.
The purpose of this study was to formulate a gelled self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) containing ketoprofen as an intermediate in the development of sustained release solid dosage form. Captex 200 (an oil), Tween 80 (a surfactant), and Capmul MCM (a cosurfactant) were used to formulate SEDDS. Silicon dioxide was used as a gelling agent, which may aid in solidification and retardation of drug release. Effect of concentrations of cosurfactant and gelling agent on emulsification process and in vitro drug diffusion was studied using 3(2) factorial design. Multiple regression analysis data and response surfaces obtained showed that liquid crystal phase viscosity increased significantly with increasing amount of silicon dioxide, which in turn caused an increase in average droplet size of resultant emulsion and slower drug diffusion. Drug release from the formulation increased with increasing amount of cosurfactant. (+info)
Dietary fat and an exogenous emulsifier increase the gastrointestinal absorption of a major soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30K, in mice.
The mechanisms by which food allergens are absorbed and sensitized via the gastrointestinal tract have not been well characterized. In this study, the gastrointestinal absorption of a major soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30K, in young and older mice, and the effects of dietary fat and exogenous emulsifier were investigated. In Expt. 1, Gly m Bd 30K [0, 500 or 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was administered orally to 24-d-old mice, and blood was sampled at various time points over a 120-min period. Plasma Gly m Bd 30K was measured by sandwich ELISA and immunoblotting. Its concentration peaked at 30 min and was dose dependent. Intact Gly m Bd 30K and its 20-kDa fragments were identified in plasma after absorption. In Expt. 2, 24-d-old mice administered soy milk containing 1 mg Gly m Bd 30K showed a steady increase in plasma Gly m Bd 30K from 60 to 120 min that was significantly higher than that in 10-wk-old mice. In Expt. 3, when corn oil (5 or 30%) was coadministered with Gly m Bd 30K (2000 mg/kg BW) to 24-d-old mice, the plasma concentration increased significantly and generally reached a plateau after 30 min. The absorption after the coadministration of 30% corn oil and 3% sucrose fatty acid ester was higher than after the administration of 30% corn oil alone. Intact Gly m Bd 30K and its fragments that were < 20 kDa survived digestion and were absorbed into the blood. We propose that absorption was enhanced by fat carrier-mediated transport. (+info)