The effect of chelating agents on iron mobilization in Chang cell cultures.
The investigation of chelating agents with potential therapeutic value in patients with transfusional iron overload has been facilitated by the use of Chang cell cultures. These cells have been incubated with [59Fe]transferrin for 22 hr, following which most of the intracellular radioiron is found in the cytosol, distributed between a ferritin and a nonferritin form. Iron release from the cells depends on transferrin saturation in the medium, but when transferrin is 100% saturated, which normally does not allow iron release, desferrioxamine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, rhodotorulic acid, cholythydroxamic acid, and tropolone all promote the mobilization of ferritin iron and its release from cells. They are effective to an approximately equal degree. The incubation of [59Fe]transferrin with tropolone in vitro at a molar ratio of 1:500 results in the transfer of most of the labeled iron to the chelator, reflecting the exceptionally high binding constant of this compound. How far these phenomena relate to therapeutic potentially remains to be seen. (+info)
Chemical and immunochemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity compared.
Radiometric, colorimetric, and two immunochemical methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity are compared. We evaluated the procedures on the basis of precision, applicability to a pediatric population, and accuracy as assessed by analytical recovery of purified transferrin. The immunoephelometric assay for transferrin provides significant advantages over the other methods examined. (+info)
Quantitation of Friend spleen focus-forming virus by a nine-day 59Fe assay.
A previously described 3-day 59Fe assay for quantitation of Friend spleen focus-forming virus has been modified to produce a 200-fold more sensitive 9-day 59Fe assay. A characterization of this assay is reported here. Male BALB/c mice received intravenous injections of appropriately diluted Friend polycythemia virus (FVP); control mice received virus diluent. All mice were allowed food and water ad libitum for 6 days, and on day 6 after virus injection were fasted by removal of food but not water. On day 3 of the fast (the 9th day after virus injection) each mouse received an intraperitoneal injection of 1 muCi of 59Fe. Six hours later the mice were sacrificed and the splenic radioactivity was determined. The percent splenic incorporation of 59Fe was directly related to the logarithm of spleen focus-forming units (SFFU) of FVP injected in a range of approximately 25 to 1,000 SFFU. Using a standard FVP preparation in a dose range of 25 to 1,000 SFFU, it was possible to determine the SFFU titers of unknown samples by extrapolation of the percent splenic 59Fe incorporation to the logarithm of SFFU. SFFU titers obtained by the 9-day 59Fe assay were similar to those obtained by the enumerative-response assay. Advantages of the 9-day 59Fe assay over the enumerative-response assay include a 50-fold greater virus dose range, an easier and a more objective counting procedure, and a reduced coefficient of variation. (+info)
The hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE, specifically regulates transferrin-mediated iron uptake in HeLa cells.
HFE is the protein product of the gene mutated in the autosomal recessive disease hereditary hemochromatosis (Feder, J. N., Gnirke, A., Thomas, W., Tsuchihashi, Z., Ruddy, D. A., Basava, A., Dormishian, F., Domingo, R. J., Ellis, M. C., Fullan, A., Hinton, L. M., Jones, N. L., Kimmel, B. E., Kronmal, G. S., Lauer, P., Lee, V. K., Loeb, D. B., Mapa, F. A., McClelland, E., Meyer, N. C., Mintier, G. A., Moeller, N., Moore, T., Morikang, E., Prasss, C. E., Quintana, L., Starnes, S. M., Schatzman, R. C., Brunke, K. J., Drayna, D. T., Risch, N. J., Bacon, B. R., and Wolff, R. R. (1996) Nat. Genet. 13, 399-408). At the cell surface, HFE complexes with transferrin receptor (TfR), increasing the dissociation constant of transferrin (Tf) for its receptor 10-fold (Gross, C. N., Irrinki, A., Feder, J. N., and Enns, C. A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 22068-22074; Feder, J. N., Penny, D. M., Irrinki, A., Lee, V. K., Lebron, J. A., Watson, N. , Tsuchihashi, Z., Sigal, E., Bjorkman, P. J., and Schatzman, R. C. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 95, 1472-1477). HFE does not remain at the cell surface, but traffics with TfR to Tf-positive internal compartments (Gross et al., 1998). Using a HeLa cell line in which the expression of HFE is controlled by tetracycline, we show that the expression of HFE reduces 55Fe uptake from Tf by 33% but does not affect the endocytic or exocytic rates of TfR cycling. Therefore, HFE appears to reduce cellular acquisition of iron from Tf within endocytic compartments. HFE specifically reduces iron uptake from Tf, as non-Tf-mediated iron uptake from Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid is not altered. These results explain the decreased ferritin levels seen in our HeLa cell system and demonstrate the specific control of HFE over the Tf-mediated pathway of iron uptake. These results also have implications for the understanding of cellular iron homeostasis in organs such as the liver, pancreas, heart, and spleen that are iron loaded in hereditary hemochromatotic individuals lacking functional HFE. (+info)
Iron regulatory protein as an endogenous sensor of iron in rat intestinal mucosa. Possible implications for the regulation of iron absorption.
Duodenal enterocytes adjust intestinal iron absorption to the body's state of iron repletion. Here we tested how iron supply from the blood modulates the RNA-binding activity of iron regulatory proteins (IRP-1 and IRP-2) in immature duodenal rat enterocytes, and whether the modulation is compatible with the hypothesis that IRPs, in turn, may regulate the expression of iron transport proteins in maturating enterocytes during migration to the villus tips. Tissue uptake of parenterally applied 59Fe along the duodenal crypt-villus axis was compared to local IRP-1 and IRP-2 activity and to duodenal 59Fe transport capacity 12 h, 48 h, and 72 h after intravenous iron administration to iron-deficient rats. IRP-1 and IRP-2 activity was significantly increased in iron-deficiency. 59Fe administrated from the blood side was almost exclusively taken up by crypt enterocytes. Accordingly, the activity of IRP-1 decreased at this site 12 h after parenteral iron administration, but remained high at the villus tips. After 48 h the bulk of 59Fe containing enterocytes had migrated to the villus tips. Correspondingly, IRP-1 activity was decreased at duodenal villus tips after 48 h. IRP-2 activity also tended to decrease, though the change was statistically not significant. IRP-2 activity remained significantly higher at duodenal villus tips than in crypts, even after 72 h. Intestinal iron absorption capacity decreased with the same delay as IRP-1 activity after intravenous iron administration. In the ileum 59Fe uptake from the blood and IRP activity showed no significant difference between crypt and villus region. Luminal administration of iron decreased duodenal IRP-1 and IRP-2 activity at tips and crypts within 2 h. Thus, recently absorbed iron becomes available to cytosolic IRP during its passage through the enterocyte. Our results are compatible with a role of IRPs in gearing the expression of intestinal iron transporters in the duodenal brushborder to the body's state of iron repletion. (+info)
Transferrin stimulates iron absorption, exocytosis, and secretion in cultured intestinal cells.
The cellular mechanism by which basolateral transferrin (Tf) produces an increase in apical-to-basolateral Fe flux in Caco-2 cells was analyzed. After a pulse of 59Fe from the apical medium, three types of basolateral 59Fe efflux were found: a 59Fe efflux that was independent of the presence of Tf in the basolateral medium, a 59Fe efflux in which 59Fe left the cell bound to Tf, and a Tf-dependent 59Fe efflux in which 59Fe came off the cell not bound to Tf. Furthermore, addition of Tf to the basolateral medium doubled the exocytosis rate of Tf and increased the secretion of apolipoprotein A, a basolateral secretion marker. Both apotransferrin and Fe-containing Tf produced similar increases in 59Fe efflux, Tf exocytosis, and apolipoprotein A secretion. The Ca2+ channel inhibitor SKF-96365 inhibited both the Tf-mediated increase in transepithelial Fe transport and the secretion of apolipoprotein A. Thus the activation of transepithelial Fe transport by Tf seems to be mediated by Ca2+ entry into the cells. (+info)
3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine reduces the rate of transferrin receptor endocytosis in K562 cells.
K562 cells, exposed for at least 24 h to 5 microM 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), gave rise to an overall increase in the number of cell surface transferrin binding receptors (18-20%). This effect was ascertained either with binding experiments by using 125I-transferrin and with immunoprecipitation by using a specific monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor. At higher AZT concentrations (20 and 40 microM), a further increase was found, that is, up to 23% by binding experiments and up to 110% by immunoprecipitation. However, Scatchard analysis of the binding data indicated that although the number of cell surface transferrin receptors increased, the affinity of transferrin for its receptor did not change (Ka=4.0x108 M). Surprisingly, immunoprecipitation of total receptor molecules showed that the synthesis of receptor was not enhanced by the drug treatment. The effect of AZT on transferrin internalization and receptor recycling was also investigated. In this case, data indicated that the increase in the number of receptors at the cell surface was probably due to a slowing down of endocytosis rate rather than to an increased recycling rate of the receptor to cell surface. In fact, the time during which half the saturated amount of transferrin had been endocytosed (t1/2) was 2.15 min for control cells and 3.41, 3.04, and 3.74 min for 5, 20, and 40 microM AZT-treated cells, respectively. Conversely, recycling experiments did not show any significant differences between control and treated cells. A likely mechanism through which AZT could interfere with the transferrin receptor trafficking, together with the relevance of our findings, is extensively discussed. (+info)
Increased expression of transferrin receptor on membrane of erythroblasts in strenuously exercised rats.
This study investigated the effects of strenuous exercise on transferrin (Tf)-receptor (TfR) expression and Tf-bound iron (Tf-Fe) uptake in erythroblasts of rat bone marrow. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either an exercise or sedentary group. Animals in the exercise group swam 2 h/day for 3 mo in a glass swimming basin. Both groups received the same amount of handling. At the end of 3 mo, the bone marrow erythroblasts were freshly isolated for Tf-binding assay and determination of Tf-Fe uptake in vitro. Tissue nonheme iron and hematological iron indexes were measured. The number of Tf-binding sites found in erythroblasts was approximately 674,500 +/- 132,766 and 1,270,011 +/- 235,321 molecules/cell in control and exercised rats, respectively (P < 0. 05). Total Fe and Tf uptake by the cells was also significantly increased in the exercised rats after 30 min of incubation. Rates of cellular Fe accumulation were 5.68 and 2.58 fmol. 10(6) cells(-1). min(-1) in the exercised and control rats, respectively (P < 0.05). Tf recycling time and TfR affinity were not different in exercised and control rats. Increased cellular Fe was mainly located in the stromal fraction, suggesting that most of accumulated Fe was transported to the mitochondria for heme synthesis. The findings demonstrated that the increased cellular Fe uptake in exercised rats was a consequence of the increased TfR expression rather than the changes in TfR affinity and Tf recycling time. The increase in TfR expression and cellular Fe accumulation, as well as the decreased serum Fe concentration and nonheme Fe in the liver and the spleen induced by exercise, probably represented the early signs of Fe deficiency. (+info)