Sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections in symptomatic clients of pharmacies in Lima, Peru.
OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalences and predictors of sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections among men and women seeking care at pharmacies. METHODS: Men and women with urethral discharge or dysuria and vaginal discharge were enrolled at 12 central and 52 smaller pharmacies in Lima, Peru. All participants answered a questionnaire. Men provided urine for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and for leucocyte esterase testing. Women provided self-obtained vaginal swabs for PCR testing for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis culture and bacterial vaginosis and Candida. RESULTS: Among 106 symptomatic men, N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis were detected in 34% and were associated with urethral discharge compared with dysuria only (odds ratio (OR) 4.3, p = 0.003), positive urine leucocyte esterase testing (OR 7.4, p = 0.009), less education (OR 5.5, p = 0.03), and with symptoms for <5 days (OR 2.5, p = 0.03). Among 121 symptomatic women, 39% had bacterial vaginosis or T vaginalis, and 7.7% had candidiasis. N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis were detected in 12.4% of the women. Overall, 48.8% had one or more of these infections. No factors were associated with vaginal infection, and only symptoms of vaginal discharge for <5 days were associated with N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis (OR 4.0, p = 0.02). The main reason reported for seeking advice at pharmacies by both men and women was trust in pharmacy workers. CONCLUSIONS: Among men and women presenting to pharmacies with urethral and vaginal symptoms, rates of urethral and vaginal infections were comparable to those found in other clinical settings. Pharmacies can contribute to the care and prevention of sexually transmitted infection in developing countries. (+info)
Alfuzosin-induced acute liver injury.
We describe a 56-year-old man who developed an acute liver injury after taking alfuzosin for 1 month to control his newly diagnosed benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). There was no history of alcohol consumption or the taking herbal or traditional remedies. Viral causes, autoimmune hepatitis, and biliary tree obstruction were excluded. Other rare causes of hepatitis such as hemochromatosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and Wilson's disease were also absent in this patient. His liver test results began to improve after discontinuing the alfuzosin. Two weeks later, alfuzosin was administered again because the patient complained of dysuria. After 10 days of alfuzosin reuse, his liver test results worsened. Five months later after the complete discontinuation of the drug, his liver test results had returned to normal. This clinical sequence suggests that alfuzosin caused his acute liver injury. (+info)
A Gartner duct cyst of the vagina causing dysuria and dyschezia in a Yorkshire terrier.
A 5 year-old, intact female Yorkshire terrier was referred for dysuria and dyschezia. The radiographic and ultrasound examination showed a round shaped mass caudal to the urinary bladder that contained anechoic fluid within the thin walls. During surgery, the cyst was noted to be attached to the outer wall of the vagina, not connected to the vaginal lumen. Cystic fluid was removed and the cystic wall was resected. Then the remaining cystic wall was omentalized to prevent a recurrence. Histological examination confirmed that the cyst was of Wolffian duct origin. In this case, a large Gartner duct cyst causing urological problems was diagnosed and removed by surgical resection. (+info)
Optimal scintigraphic evaluation of a hydronephrotic horseshoe kidney.
A 25-y-old man with horseshoe kidney was referred for diuretic-augmented renal scintigraphy. Single-detector dynamic posterior imaging was performed and revealed asymmetric retention of radiotracer in the left collecting system. Renal scintigraphy was repeated with a modified protocol. Dynamic imaging was performed this time using dual-detector acquisition of both anterior and posterior data. Thereafter, pregravity and subsequently postgravity static images were obtained in both anterior and posterior projections. This second study showed near-complete emptying of the left collecting system. This case illustrates the utility of using simultaneous anterior and posterior imaging and geometric mean calculations for functional analysis and also highlights the value of physiologic maneuvers to augment the traditional diuretic challenge. (+info)
A case of bladder and colonic duplication.
Duplication of the bladder is a rare congenital anomaly with an unknown embryological basis. A 12-year-old boy with dysuria was found to have a tri-radiate external urethral meatus instead of a vertical slit. Cystourethroscopy revealed two bladders with bifid proximal urethra. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed duplication of colon and bladder. He did not have any symptoms related to the urinary tract. (+info)
Safety and efficacy of methylene blue combined with artesunate or amodiaquine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a randomized controlled trial from Burkina Faso.
Vanishing bile duct and Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with ciprofloxacin treated with tacrolimus.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease. Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) is a rare cause of progressive cholestasis. Both syndromes are mostly related with drugs. We report a case of a patient with ciprofloxacin-induced SJS and acute onset of VBDS, and reviewed the related literature. It is the first case of ciprofloxacin-induced VBDS successfully treated with tacrolimus. This case reminds physicians of the importance of drug reactions, their severity, techniques for diagnosis and methods of management. (+info)
Living with urinary incontinence: a longitudinal study of older women.