Relief of obstructive pelvic venous symptoms with endoluminal stenting.
PURPOSE: To select patients for percutaneous transluminal stenting of chronic postthrombotic pelvic venous obstructions (CPPVO), we evaluated the clinical symptoms in a cohort of candidates and in a series of successfully treated patients. METHODS: The symptoms of 42 patients (39 women) with CPPVO (38 left iliac; average history, 18 years) were recorded, and the venous anatomy was studied by means of duplex scanning, subtraction venography, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Successfully stented patients were controlled by means of duplex scanning and assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: The typical symptoms of CPPVO were reported spontaneously by 24% of patients and uncovered by means of a targeted interview in an additional 47%. Of 42 patients, 15 had venous claudication, four had neurogenic claudication (caused by dilated veins in the spinal canal that arise from the collateral circulation), and 11 had both symptoms. Twelve patients had no specific symptoms. Placement of a stent was found to be technically feasible in 25 patients (60%), was attempted in 14 patients, and was primarily successful in 12 patients. One stent occluded within the first week. All other stents were fully patent after a mean of 15 months (range, 1 to 43 months). Satisfaction was high in the patients who had the typical symptoms, but low in those who lacked them. CONCLUSION: Venous claudication and neurogenic claudication caused by venous collaterals in the spinal canal are typical clinical features of CPPVO. We recommend searching for these symptoms, because recanalization by means of stenting is often feasible and rewarding. (+info)
The diameter of the common femoral artery in healthy human: influence of sex, age, and body size.
PURPOSE: To determine the relevance of dilatations of the common femoral artery (CFA), knowledge of the normal CFA diameter is essential. The diameter of the CFA in healthy male and female subjects of different ages was investigated. METHODS: The diameter of the CFA was measured in 122 healthy volunteers (59 male, 63 female; 8 to 81 years of age) with echo-tracking B-mode ultrasound scan. The influence of age, sex, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and systolic blood pressure was analyzed by means of a multiple regression model. RESULTS: The CFA increased steadily in diameter throughout life. From 25 years onwards, the diameter was larger in men than in women. Significant correlations were found between the CFA diameter and weight (r = 0.58 and r = 0.57 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), height (r = 0.49 and r = 0.54 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), and BSA (r = 0.60 and r = 0.62 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). Age and BSA were used to create a model for prediction of the CFA diameter (r = 0.71 and r = 0.77 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). CONCLUSION: The diameter of the CFA increases with age, initially during growth but also in adults. This is related to age, body size, and sex male subjects have larger arteries than female subjects. It is now possible to predict the normal CFA diameter, and nomograms that may be used in the study of aneurysmal disease are presented. (+info)
Early detection by ultrasound scan of severe post-chemotherapy gut complications in patients with acute leukemia.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute leukemia patients may develop life-threatening gut complications after intensive chemotherapy. We evaluated the role of abdominal and pelvic ultrasound (US) examination in early detection of these complications. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of twenty adult acute leukemia patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for remission induction entered the study. All chemotherapy regimens included cytarabine by continuous i.v. infusion for several days. RESULTS: Three patients had severe gut complications: 2 cases of enterocolitis and 1 case of gall bladder overdistension in the absence of calculi. In all cases the abnormality was documented by US examination: US scan showed thickening of the intestinal wall (two cases), and gall bladder overdistension with biliary sludge (one case). Immediate medical care included bowel rest, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, antimycotic treatment, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. All patients recovered from the complication. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the favorable outcome obtained in our small series can be attributed to early diagnosis followed by appropriate treatment. Early recognition by US and immediate medical management can lead to complete recovery of severe intestinal complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing intensive chemotherapy. (+info)
Comparison of pulmonary uptake with transient cavity dilation after exercise thallium-201 perfusion imaging.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between elevated lung/heart ratio (LHR) and transient ischemic dilation (TID) after stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and to provide further insight into the mechanism of cavity dilation. BACKGROUND: Because both LHR and TID have been identified as adjunctive markers of severe coronary disease they should be found in the same patients. Although the mechanism of LHR has been defined, that of transient dilation has not. METHODS: We identified 4,618 consecutive patients undergoing maximal exercise perfusion imaging with thallium-201. Lung/heart ratio and a dilation index were derived and compared to each other and to relevant clinical parameters. RESULTS: There was a very weak relationship between the LHR and dilation index (r = 0.15, p < 0.001). Defining a dilation index > or =1.10 and LHR > or =50% as abnormal revealed that 322 of the patients (7%) had TID only, 351 (7.8%) had LHR only and 40 (0.9%) had both. When compared to patients without these findings both TID and LHR had higher thallium stress defect and redistribution scores. When comparing subjects who had elevated LHR uptake to those who had TID, it was found that those with LHR were more likely to have had prior myocardial infarction (MI) (29% vs. 9%), coronary artery bypass grafting (22% vs. 8%), lower ejection fraction (34+/-17% vs. 55+/-11%) and had more evidence of ischemia based on thallium stress defect and redistribution scores. However, patients with cavity dilation had a higher frequency of positive electrocardiographic response (31% vs. 19%) despite lower scintigraphic markers. CONCLUSIONS: Although pulmonary uptake and transient cavity dilation have both been associated with severe coronary disease, they have a very weak correlation, which, in combination with the different clinical parameters associated with each, suggests that they represent different pathophysiologic responses to exercise-induced ischemia. Our data support the hypothesis that TID represents transient subendocardial ischemia rather than physical dilation from increased end-diastolic pressure. (+info)
A prospective study to assess changes in proximal aortic neck dimensions after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to detect any change in the proximal neck diameter after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. METHODS: The study was performed in a teaching hospital with an endovascular program on 112 patients who had undergone endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The interventions were pre-endovascular and postendovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms with contrast-enhanced, spiral computerized tomography, and the main outcome measures were change in aortic proximal neck diameter, change in maximum aortic diameter, presence of endoleaks, and change in length from lowest renal artery to aortic bifurcation. RESULTS: The median anterior-posterior and transverse diameter decreased from 63.5 mm before surgery to 50.4 and 54.5 mm, respectively, after surgery in a period of 4 years. This trend in reduction in maximum diameter was not seen in the patients with endoleaks. There was no significant change in the proximal neck diameters when measured at 5-mm intervals after endovascular repair. There was also no significant change in the aortic length after endovascular repair. CONCLUSION: We have not demonstrated any evidence for proximal neck dilatation after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. (+info)
Vesicoureteral reflux in male and female neonates as detected by voiding ultrasonography.
BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is assumed to be congenital, and its early diagnosis is desired in order to prevent acquired renal damage. However, the incidence of VUR in neonates remains to be revealed. METHODS: Two thousand newborn babies (1048 boys and 952 girls) underwent voiding ultrasonography (an ultrasound examination of urinary tract during provoked voiding). Those who showed transient renal pelvic dilation during voiding, who had small kidneys, or who subsequently developed urinary infection underwent voiding cystourethrography. RESULTS: Transient renal pelvic dilation was observed in 16 babies (0.8%), including one boy with small kidneys. Among the rest of the babies, one boy had a small kidney, and nine babies subsequently developed urinary infection. Voiding cystourethrography revealed VUR in 24 ureters of 16 children (11 boys and 5 girls). Dimercaptosuccinate renoscintigraphy confirmed small kidneys, with generally reduced tracer uptake in a total of three boys, all having VUR. Voiding ultrasonography detected transient renal pelvic dilation in 17 (71%) of the 24 kidneys with VUR and, strikingly, 16 of the 17 (94%) kidneys with high-grade VUR (grade III or more). CONCLUSION: This study effectively detected VUR in 0.8% of the neonates (mostly of high grades and predominantly in males) and voiding ultrasonography showed a decided usefulness for the detection of VUR. The male preponderance of VUR in neonates was considered to be due to the occurrence of congenitally small kidneys, with reflux found exclusively in males and easier ultrasound detection of VUR in male neonates because the majority of diagnoses are reported to be high grades of VUR. (+info)
Hypoxia induces severe right ventricular dilatation and infarction in heme oxygenase-1 null mice.
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the oxidation of heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin. CO increases cellular levels of cGMP, which regulates vascular tone and smooth muscle development. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant. Hypoxia increases expression of the inducible HO isoform (HO-1) but not the constitutive isoform (HO-2). To determine whether HO-1 affects cellular adaptation to chronic hypoxia in vivo, we generated HO-1 null (HO-1(-/-)) mice and subjected them to hypoxia (10% oxygen) for five to seven weeks. Hypoxia caused similar increases in right ventricular systolic pressure in wild-type and HO-1(-/-) mice. Although ventricular weight increased in wild-type mice, the increase was greater in HO-1(-/-) mice. Similarly, the right ventricles were more dilated in HO-1(-/-) mice. After seven weeks of hypoxia, only HO-1(-/-) mice developed right ventricular infarcts with organized mural thrombi. No left ventricular infarcts were observed. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage occurred in right ventricular cardiomyocytes in HO-1(-/-), but not wild-type, mice. We also detected apoptotic cardiomyocytes surrounding areas of infarcted myocardium by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assays. Our data suggest that in the absence of HO-1, cardiomyocytes have a maladaptive response to hypoxia and subsequent pulmonary hypertension. J.Clin. Invest. 103:R23-R29 (1999). (+info)
MR imaging of acute coccidioidal meningitis.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our purpose was to describe the MR imaging findings in patients with acute coccidioidal meningitis. METHODS: Fourteen patients (11 men, three women; 22-78 years old; mean age, 47 years) with coccidioidal meningitis underwent neuroimaging within 2 months of diagnosis. Thirteen patients had MR imaging and one had an initial CT study with a follow-up MR examination 5 months later. Initial and follow-up MR images were evaluated for the presence of ventricular dilatation, signal abnormalities, enhancement characteristics, sites of involvement, and evidence of white matter or cortical infarction. The patterns of enhancement were characterized as focal or diffuse. Pathologic specimens were reviewed in two patients. RESULTS: Ten of the 14 images obtained at the time of initial diagnosis showed evidence of meningitis. All of the initially abnormal studies showed enhancement in the basal cisterns, sylvian fissures, or pericallosal region. Subsequent studies, which were available for three of the four patients with normal findings initially, all eventually became abnormal, with focal enhancement seen on the initial abnormal examination. Other abnormalities seen at presentation included ventricular dilatation (six patients) and deep infarcts (four patients). Pathologic specimens in two patients showed focal collections of the organism corresponding to the areas of intense enhancement on MR images. CONCLUSION: Early in its disease course, coccidioidal meningitis may show areas of focal enhancement in the basal cisterns, which may progress to diffuse disease. Pathologically, the areas of enhancement represent focal collections of the organism. Deep infarcts and communicating hydrocephalus are associated findings. (+info)