Neonatal uninephrectomy causes hypertension in adult rats.
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a reduced number of nephrons from birth leads to increased arterial pressure in adulthood. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were uninephrectomized during the first 24 h after birth. In chronically instrumented adult animals (approximately 22 wk), mean arterial pressure on a normal (0.20%)-Na+ diet was higher in uninephrectomized rats (133 +/- 2 mmHg vs. 121 +/- 2 mmHg in controls, P < 0.0001). Body weights were not significantly different, but the total kidney-to-body weight ratio was significantly reduced by 14% in adult uninephrectomized animals (P < 0.05). Glomerular filtration rate was reduced by approximately 30% in uninephrectomized rats (1.84 +/- 0.09 vs. 2.63 +/- 0.14 ml/min, P < 0.0002), and effective renal plasma flow was reduced to a lesser degree (6.37 +/- 0.38 vs. 7.87 +/- 0.51 ml/min, P < 0.03), such that the filtration fraction was also reduced (0.291 +/- 0.007 vs. 0.338 +/- 0.014, P < 0.01). After 7-10 days on a high (3.15%)-Na+ diet, arterial pressure increased more in uninephrectomized animals than in controls (20 +/- 3 vs. 1 +/- 1 mmHg, P < 0.003). Thus surgical removal of 50% of the nephrons, when done during development, caused reduced renal function and a salt-sensitive hypertension in adulthood. These data suggest that a reduced nephron endowment from birth, caused by genetic and/or perinatal environmental factors, could contribute to essential hypertension in adulthood. (+info)
Renal arteriolar Na+/Ca2+ exchange in salt-sensitive hypertension.
The present studies were performed to assess Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity in afferent and efferent arterioles from Dahl/Rapp salt-resistant (R) and salt-sensitive (S) rats. Renal arterioles were obtained by microdissection from S and R rats on either a low-salt (0.3% NaCl) or high-salt (8.0% NaCl) diet. On the high-salt diet, S rats become markedly hypertensive. Cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured in fura 2-loaded arterioles bathed in a Ringer solution in which extracellular Na (Nae) was varied from 150 to 2 mM (Na was replaced with N-methyl-D-glucamine). Baseline [Ca2+]i was similar in afferent arterioles of R and S rats fed low- and high-salt diet. The change in [Ca2+]i (Delta[Ca2+]i) during reduction in Nae from 150 to 2 mM was 80 +/- 10 and 61 +/- 3 nM (not significant) in afferent arterioles from R rats fed the low- and high-salt diet, respectively. In afferent arterioles from S rats on a high-salt diet, Delta[Ca2+]i during reductions in Nae from 150 to 2 mM was attenuated (39 +/- 4 nM) relative to the Delta[Ca2+]i of 79 +/- 13 nM (P < 0.05) obtained in afferent arterioles from S rats on a low-salt diet. In efferent arterioles, baseline [Ca2+]i was similar in R and S rats fed low- and high-salt diets, and Delta[Ca2+]i in response to reduction in Nae was also not different in efferent arterioles from R and S rats fed low- or high-salt diets. Differences in regulation of the exchanger in afferent arterioles of S and R rats were assessed by determining the effects of protein kinase C (PKC) activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 100 nM) on Delta[Ca2+]i in response to reductions in Nae from 150 to 2 mM. PMA increased Delta[Ca2+]i in afferent arterioles from R rats but not from S rats. These results suggest that Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity is suppressed in afferent arterioles of S rats that are on a high-salt diet. In addition, there appears to be a defect in the PKC-Na+/Ca2+ exchange pathway that might contribute to altered [Ca2+]i regulation in this important renal vascular segment in salt-sensitive hypertension. (+info)
Regulation of thick ascending limb ion transporter abundance in response to altered acid/base intake.
Changes in ammonium excretion with acid/base perturbations are dependent on changes in medullary ammonium accumulation mediated by active NH4+ absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb. To investigate whether alterations in the abundance of medullary thick ascending limb ion transporters, namely the apical Na+/K+(NH4+)/2Cl- -cotransporter (BSC-1), the apical Na+/H+ -exchanger (NHE3), and the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit, may be responsible in part for altered medullary ammonium accumulation, semiquantitative immunoblotting studies were performed using homogenates from the inner stripe of the rat renal outer medulla. After 7 d of NH4Cl (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) loading (associated with increased medullary ammonium accumulation), neither BSC-1 nor Na+/K+ -ATPase protein expression was altered, but NHE3 protein abundance was significantly increased. On the other hand, both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase protein abundance was increased significantly in rats fed NaHCO3 (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) for 7 d. Rats fed a high-NaCl diet (7.7 mEq Na+/220 g body wt per d) for 5 d also showed marked increases in both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase expression. The expression level of NHE3 protein did not change with either NaHCO3 or high NaCl intake. None of these three transporters showed a significant difference in abundance between the groups fed equimolar (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d for 7 d) NaHCO3 or NaCl. It is concluded that outer medullary BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit protein abundance is increased by chronic Na+ loading but not by acid/base perturbations and that outer medullary NHE3 protein abundance is increased by chronic NH4Cl loading. (+info)
Roles of aldosterone and angiotensin in maturation of sodium appetite in furosemide-treated rats.
When rats are treated with furosemide, there is a rapid natriuresis. However, increased sodium appetite does not occur until some time later. One hypothesis to explain this delay is that increased circulating levels of the hormones of sodium depletion prime or sensitize the brain circuits involved in sodium appetite, perhaps by induction of target gene(s). In the present study, we describe the time course of the temporal maturation of sodium appetite after furosemide treatment and the associated changes in plasma levels of ANG II and aldosterone and in plasma volume. Sodium appetite is modest 3 h after furosemide treatment, is increased after 12 h, and is still larger after 24 h. This pattern is evident with repeated testing. Plasma levels of aldosterone and plasma renin activity are substantially increased 3 h after furosemide treatment, and so the NaCl appetite cannot result simply from progressively increasing levels of these hormones. Furthermore, activation of the subfornical organ and the ventral lamina terminalis, assessed with c-Fos immunocytochemistry, did not differ across these three times. Metyrapone, an inhibitor of adrenal steroid synthesis, was used to examine sodium appetite in the absence of elevations in aldosterone after furosemide treatment. Although metyrapone effectively blocked the increase in aldosterone, it was without effect on the appetite 3 or 24 h after furosemide treatment. Furthermore, elevations of plasma aldosterone by the use of minipumps for several days before furosemide treatment did not prime or potentiate but instead tended to inhibit the induced sodium appetite, despite achieving levels of aldosterone and plasma renin activity typically associated with a robust sodium appetite. Infusions of DOCA gave a similar result. Lastly, minipump infusions of ANG II also did not potentiate sodium appetite. Thus neither addition nor subtraction of these hormones alone influenced sodium appetite under these conditions. (+info)
Sustained hypersensitivity to angiotensin II and its mechanism in mice lacking the subtype-2 (AT2) angiotensin receptor.
The vast majority of the known biological effects of the renin-angiotensin system are mediated by the type-1 (AT1) receptor, and the functions of the type-2 (AT2) receptor are largely unknown. We investigated the role of the AT2 receptor in the vascular and renal responses to physiological increases in angiotensin II (ANG II) in mice with targeted deletion of the AT2 receptor gene. Mice lacking the AT2 receptor (AT2-null mice) had slightly elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared with that of wild-type (WT) control mice (P < 0.0001). In AT2-null mice, infusion of ANG II (4 pmol/kg/min) for 7 days produced a marked and sustained increase in SBP [from 116 +/- 0.5 to 208 +/- 1 mmHg (P < 0.0001) (1 mmHg = 133 Pa)] and reduction in urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) [from 0.6 +/- 0.01 to 0.05 +/- 0.002 mM/day (P < 0.0001)] whereas neither SBP nor UNaV changed in WT mice. AT2-null mice had low basal levels of renal interstitial fluid bradykinin (BK), and cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate, an index of nitric oxide production, compared with WT mice. In WT mice, dietary sodium restriction or ANG II infusion increased renal interstitial fluid BK, and cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate by approximately 4-fold (P < 0.0001) whereas no changes were observed in AT2-null mice. These results demonstrate that the AT2 receptor is necessary for normal physiological responses of BK and nitric oxide to ANG II. Absence of the AT2 receptor leads to vascular and renal hypersensitivity to ANG II, including sustained antinatriuresis and hypertension. These results strongly suggest that the AT2 receptor plays a counterregulatory protective role mediated via BK and nitric oxide against the antinatriuretic and pressor actions of ANG II. (+info)
Dietary salt intake alters cardiovascular responses evoked from the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
The present experiments examined whether in rats consuming diets with either high NaCl content (8%) or low Na+ content (0.01%) for 2 wk excitatory inputs to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) would be altered. In chloralose-anesthetized rats, injection of glutamate into the RVLM elicited a pressor response that, compared with rats fed a control diet, was 50% larger in rats fed a diet containing 8% NaCl and was 25% smaller in rats fed a diet containing 0.01% Na+. Pressor responses produced by electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve afferents, as well as by microinjections into the RVLM of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine or carbachol, were all potentiated by high dietary salt intake and reduced by low dietary salt intake. Dietary salt intake had no effect on pressor responses produced by intravenous injection of phenylephrine, indicating that salt-related alterations in cardiovascular responses produced by central activation could not be accounted for by changes in peripheral vascular reactivity. The decrease in arterial pressure produced by injection of glutamate into the nucleus of the solitary tract was also potentiated by the high salt diet, suggesting that the sensitivity of central baroreceptor reflex pathways may be altered by dietary NaCl. These results indicate that the amount of NaCl consumed in the diet can change the sensitivity of RVLM sympathoexcitatory neurons, and this change in sensitivity is not restricted to any particular class of cell surface receptors. (+info)
Regulation of P-450 4A activity in the glomerulus of the rat.
We recently reported that an enzyme of the cytochrome P-450 4A family is expressed in the glomerulus, but there is no evidence that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) can be produced by this tissue. The purpose of present study was to determine whether glomeruli isolated from the kidney of rats can produce 20-HETE and whether the production of this metabolite is regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and dietary salt intake. Isolated glomeruli produced 20-HETE, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (4.13 +/- 0.38, 4.20 +/- 0.38, and 2. 10 +/- 0.20 pmol. min-1. mg protein-1, respectively) when incubated with arachidonic acid (10 microM). The formation of 20-HETE was dependent on the availability of NADPH and the PO2 of the incubation medium. The formation of 20-HETE was inhibited by NO donors in a concentration-dependent manner. The production of 20-HETE was greater in glomeruli isolated from the kidneys of rats fed a low-salt diet than in kidneys of rats fed a high-salt diet (5.67 +/- 0.32 vs. 2.83 +/- 0.32 pmol. min-1. mg protein-1). Immunoblot experiments indicated that the expression of P-450 4A protein in glomeruli from the kidneys of rats fed a low-salt diet was sixfold higher than in kidneys of rats fed a high-salt diet. These results indicate that arachidonic acid is primarily metabolized to 20-HETE and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids in glomeruli and that glomerular P-450 activity is modulated by NO and dietary salt intake. (+info)
Seven lessons from two candidate genes in human essential hypertension: angiotensinogen and epithelial sodium channel.
The candidate gene approach to understanding the genetics of human essential hypertension is discussed by analyzing the contribution of 2 genes, angiotensinogen (AGT) and epithelial amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (ENaC). From a large series of studies conducted in humans and animals, it appears that the AGT gene plays a significant but modest role in human blood pressure variance. Mutations of the beta- and gamma-ENaC subunits are responsible for Liddle's syndrome, but the implication of the 3 ENaC subunits in essential hypertension is still questionable. Several lessons can be learned from these studies and applied to other candidate genes in essential hypertension: (1) Many linkage or association studies have a limited statistical power; (2) The genetic findings may vary greatly according to the populations studied; (3) There is a need for better phenotyping of the hypertensive population; (4) The causal relationship between molecular variants and hypertension is and will be difficult to establish firmly; (5) The contribution of genetic studied in rodents to the molecular genetics of human hypertension must be re-examined; (6) Most molecular variants lead to a low attributable risk in the population or a low individual effect at the individual level; and (7) It is too early to propose dietary recommendations and specific drug treatment according to patients' genotypes. (+info)