Low and conventional dose cyclopenthiazide on glucose and lipid metabolism in mild hypertension.
In a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised parallel study we investigated the antihypertensive activity and metabolic adverse effects of three doses of cyclopenthiazide in 53 patients with mild hypertension. After a 4 week placebo washout period, patients with diastolic blood pressures between 90-110 mm Hg were randomly assigned to receive 50 micrograms, 125 micrograms and 500 micrograms of cyclopenthiazide or matching placebo, over an 8 week active treatment period. Blood pressure was recorded at 2 weekly intervals during the trial. Venous samples were taken for evaluation of drug effect on indices of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism just prior to, and on completion of, the active treatment period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) with the 125 micrograms and 500 micrograms doses of cyclopenthiazide. No change was apparent in any index of glucose and lipid metabolism over time. Low and conventional doses of cyclopenthiazide lower blood pressure without alteration to the metabolic profile in the short term. (+info)
The case for low dose diuretics in hypertension: comparison of low and conventional doses of cyclopenthiazide.
In a double blind placebo controlled randomised parallel study the antihypertensive activity and adverse biochemical effects of three doses of cyclopenthiazide were evaluated in patients with mild essential hypertension that had been recently diagnosed or was being treated with a single drug. After a four week placebo washout period 53 patients with diastolic blood pressures between 90-110 mm Hg were randomly assigned to 50, 125, or 500 micrograms cyclopenthiazide or matching placebo for an eight week period of treatment. Blood pressure was measured in the patients' homes by the same observer every two weeks. Serum urea, electrolytes, urate, and creatinine concentrations and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were monitored every four weeks and serum magnesium concentration and plasma renin activity at the end of the washout and treatment periods. After eight weeks of treatment systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly reduced in patients taking 125 and 500 micrograms cyclopenthiazide when compared with those taking placebo. The decrement in serum potassium concentration (0.6 mmol/l) and increase in serum urate concentration 0.06 mmol/l) were greatest with the 500 micrograms dose, the increase in serum urate concentration alone being significant. No change in serum magnesium concentration or 24 hour urinary sodium excretion was noted with any dose of cyclopenthiazide. Only the 500 micrograms dose of cyclopenthiazide significantly increased the mean plasma renin activity (1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 3.4)-5.4 (3.9 to 6.8) nmol angiotensin I/l/h); the other doses like the placebo had no effect. Cyclopenthiazide 125 micrograms, a dose lower than is currently marketed, produced a similar hypotensive response to 500 micrograms of the drug without upsetting the biochemical profile. (+info)
Drugs, including alcohol, that act as risk factors for cataract, and possible protection against cataract by aspirin-like analgesics and cyclopenthiazide.
A case-control study of cataract in Oxfordshire explored the risks and benefits associated with a variety of drugs. Steroids including the diuretic spironolactone, nifedipine, heavy smoking, and beer drinking were associated with a raised risk. On the other hand aspirin-like analgesics (paracetamol, ibuprofen, aspirin, etc. appeared to protect against cataract. Cyclopenthiazide appeared to provide a similar protection. (+info)
The breast pain clinic: a rational approach to classification and treatment of breast pain.
Three hundred and fifty women complaining of breast pain symptoms of sufficient severity to interfere with their normal lifestyle were reviewed in a special breast pain clinic over a 5 year period. Seventy-two patients (21%) had spontaneous resolution of breast pain and they required reassurance only before discharge. Of the remaining 278 patients, accurate classification of breast pain syndromes was achieved in 89%, the commonest syndrome being cyclical breast pain which accounted for 54% of the women followed up. The remaining womens' breast pain was classified as trigger zone (14%), continuous (8%), Tietze's disease (5%), spinal root (4%), duct ectasia (4%) and psychological depression (2%). In the remaining 25 patients (9%) the breast pain could not be classified. The experience from this clinic is that a majority of women complaining of severe breast pain symptoms can be accurately classified and appropriate therapy instituted. (+info)
Arrhythmogenic potential of diuretic induced hypokalaemia in patients with mild hypertension and ischaemic heart disease.
In view of evidence suggesting an association of mild hypokalaemia with cardiac arrhythmia, the arrhythmogenic potentials of potassium losing and potassium sparing diuretic treatments were compared in a controlled prospective crossover study of 10 patients with mild hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. Mean (SEM) plasma potassium was 4.3(0.06) mmol/l and 3.3(0.07) mmol/l after potassium sparing and potassium losing treatments respectively. Blood pressure and volume depletion as assessed by weight change, plasma renin activity, and noradrenaline concentrations did not differ significantly in the two treatment periods. The potassium losing treatment phase was associated with an increased frequency of ventricular extrasystoles, a higher Lown grading during ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, prolonged duration and decreased phase 0 velocity of the monophasic action potential, a prolonged ventricular effective refractory period, and increased myocardial electrical instability as assessed by programmed ventricular stimulation. It is concluded that minor changes in plasma potassium concentration are associated with increased ventricular electrical instability in patients with ischaemic heart disease. Mild hypokalaemia in such patients may predispose to life threatening arrhythmias and should be avoided. (+info)
Comparison of the beta-adrenoceptor blocking activity of oxprenolol, slow release oxprenolol and a combined oxprenolol diuretic preparation.
1 Observations were made in five healthy subjects who exercised before and 2, 3, 6, 8 and 24 h after the oral administration on separate occasions of 160 mg oxprenolol, 160 mg slow release oxprenolol, 160 mg slow release oxprenolol with 0.25 mg cyclopenthiazide and placebo. Blood samples were obtained before and at 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after drug administration and assayed for oxprenolol concentration. 2 The three formulations produced maximum reductions of 29% in the exercise tachycardia 3 to 6 h after drug administration. At 24 h the effects of the three preparations were not significantly different from placebo. 3 There were no significant differences in the plasma concentrations produced by the three formulations during the 24 h period. 4 These observations suggest that the slow release formulations of oxprenolol should be given twice daily to maintain cardiac beta-adrenoceptor blockade throughout a period of 24 h. (+info)
Xipamide and cyclopenthiazide in essential hypertension--comparative effects on blood pressure and plasma potassium.
1 The blood pressure lowering effect of xipamide, a non-thiazide diuretic given for 6 weeks was compared in a randomised cross-over trial with that of cyclopenthiazide in 14 patients with essential hypertension. 2 Xipamide 10 or 20 mg given once daily was as effective in lowering supine blood pressure as daily cyclopenthiazide 0.5 mg. There was no difference in the blood pressure lowering effect of 10 mg xipamide daily for 2 weeks compared to 20 mg daily given for a further 4 weeks. 3 Plasma potassium was reduced by both drugs, but markedly more after both 10 mg and 20 mg xipamide than after cyclopenthiazide 0.5 mg. By the sixth week of treatment 13 of 14 patients on xipamide but only 6 of 14 on cyclopenthiazide has plasma potassium concentrations of, or less than, 3.5 mmol/l. The fall in plasma potassium was significantly greater and the final plasma potassium concentration was significantly lower after either dose of xipamide than after cyclopenthiazide. 4 These results suggest that 10 mg or 20 mg of xipamide daily is effective in lowering blood pressure in hypertensive patients but is associated with hypokalaemia. In view of recent evidence linking diuretic-induced hypokalaemia with cardiac dysrhythmias in patients with essential hypertension we would suggest that thiazide diuretics be used in preference to xipamide for the routine management of essential hypertension. Our results also suggest that the currently recommended dose of xipamide (20 mg) for the treatment of hypertension is excessive, and lower amounts than 10 mg per day might possibly be as effective in lowering blood pressure with less adverse metabolic consequences. (+info)
Diuretic treatment of resistant hypertension.
In patients with hypertension resistant to three or four drugs including a thiazide diuretic substitution of frusemide for the thiazide, or the addition of spironolactone, produced significant reductions in blood pressure and body weight. The response did not depend on the presence of overt fluid retention, renal impairment, or the use of antihypertensive drugs of high potency. Women had larger responses than men. Expansion of the plasma or extracellular fluid volume is an important cause of resistance to treatment even when a thiazide diuretic is used. An increase in diuretic treatment should be tried before using the postganglionic adrenergic blockers or minoxidil in resistant hypertension. (+info)