Anti-ulcer effects of 4'-(2-carboxyetyl) phenyl trans-4-aminomethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride (cetraxate) on various experimental gastric ulcers in rats.
Anti-ulcer effects of cetraxate, a new compound possessing anti-plasmin, anti-casein and anti-trypsin actions were investigated by using experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Cetraxate, 300 mg/kg p.o. showed significant inhibitory effects of 65.3%, 70.0%, 30.2%, and 67.1% against aucte types of ulcers producing by aspirin, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, and pyloric ligature (Shay's ulcer), respectively. These effects were greater than those obtained by gefarnate and aluminum sucrose sulfate may be mainly attributed to the protecting action of this drug on gastric mucosa. Ctraxate further revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on chronic types of ulcers produced by acetic acid, clamping, and clamping-cortisone. In acetic acid ulcer in particular, cetraxate was found to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect at doses over 50 mg/kg. Of test drugs including L-glutamine and methylmethionine sulfonium chloride, cetraxate showed the most remarkable inhibitory effect on beta-glucuronidase activity in ulcer tissue of these three types of ulcers. These findings suggest that cetraxate may prevent the connective tissue in the ulcer location from decomposition due to lysosomal enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase, thereby accelerating the recovery from ulcer. (+info)
Comparative effects of cortisone, dianabol and enovid on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in arteriosclerotic vs nonarteriosclerotic rats.
Male and female nonarteriosclerotic (virgin) and arteriosclerotic (breeder) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to acute myocardial infarction with isoprenaline. When myocardial necrosis was most intense, animals were given cortisone (high and low doses), Dianabol, or Enovid. Animals receiving large doses of cortisone manifested the best survival rate during the early stages of myocardial infarction. Although their serum enzyme levels were least elevated and their hearts showed tha least amount of damage, these animals had undergone the most intense body weight loss and began to die suddenly during the later stages of the experiment. These animals also manifested hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, septicaemia, severe disuse atrophy of their adrenal glands, and reduced Cmpd. B production. Animals treated with low doses of cortisone or with the anabolic and androgenic steroid, Dianabol, manifested none of the myocardial pretective effects of the larger dose of cortisone. These animals displayed a high incidence of left ventricular aneurysm formation concomitant with extensive cartilaginous metaplasia within the aneurysmal sites. Treatment with the contraceptive drug, Enovid, caused body weight loss, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, gonadal atrophy and reduction of Cmpd. B production. Although the high dose of cortisone exercised definite salutary effects during early myocardial infarction, chronic treatment led to adrenal disuse atrophy and hypoadrenocorticism associated with sudden death during the later stages of myocardial repair. These findings indicate that proper adjustment of the dose and chronicity of corticosteroids used for treating the crisis of acute myocardial infarction must be made in order to provide effective protection against untoward pathophysiological conditions, acceleration of myocardial repair, but without suppression of adrenal function. (+info)
Genetics of cortisone-induced cleft palate in the mouse-embryonic and maternal effects.
Differences between mouse strains in frequency of embryonic, cortisone-induced cleft palate were examined. Probit analysis demonstrated a family of linear and parallel dose-response curves for different inbred and hybrid embryos. Since the differences between genotypes were not in the slopes of the response curves but rather in their location, it is proposed that the median effective dose (ED50) of cortisone required to induce cleft palate (or the tolerance) provides a more appropriate definition of the response trait and its difference that a frequency statement. The tolerance of C57BL/6J is dominant to that of A/J. A maternal effect of A/J relative to C57BL/6J dams caused a two-fold reduction in the embryonic tolerance of cortisone. Cortisone-induced cleft palate and mortality were separate response traits. In these and previous studies on cortisone- and other glucocorticoid-induced cleft palate in the mouse, the nature of the cleft-palate-response curve appeared to be the same for all glucocorticoids, and within-strain differences in tolerance could be used as measures of potency or bioassays for a particular effect of the glucocorticoids. (+info)
A radioimmunoassay for human plasma corticosterone.
A radioimmunoassay for human plasma corticosterone has been developed. Antiserum against corticosterone was produced in rabbits immunized with corticosterone-21-hemisuccinate conjugated to bovine serum albumin. The antiserum cross-reacted with progesterone, DOC and dehydrocorticosterone more than 20%. After the extraction with ether, and the separation by Sephadex LH-20 microcolumn chromatography, recovery was 51.2 +/- 12.1% in 50 assays. The mean coefficient of variation between assays was 7.7% and within assays was 8.6%. Human plasma corticosterone is measured readily by assaying aliquots of an ether extract of 0.05 to 0.1 ml of plasma after microcolumn chromatography. The mean plasma corticosterone concentration at 9 a.m. was 7.1 +/- 3.2 ng/ml in 45 normal subjects. Plasma corticosterone increased 5.2 times as much as basal values after ACTH injection, whereas radioimmunoassayed cortisol increased 2.4 times. On the other hand, plasma corticosterone decreased to 22.6% of basal values at four hours after 1 mg dexamethasone, whereas radioimmunoassayed cortisol decreased to 12.3% of basal values. (+info)
Effect of the synthetic glucocorticoid, deflazacort, on body growth, pulsatile secretion of GH and thymolysis in the rat.
DESIGN: Deflazacort (DFZ) is a relatively new glucocorticoid that has been reported to exhibit fewer side-effects than other commonly used corticosteroids. The present study was designed to test the effects of DFZ on thymus gland involution (thymolysis), as compared with body growth and the secretory pattern of GH in the rat. Beginning at 38 days of age, male animals were treated for 8 consecutive days by s.c. injection of DFZ (0.15mg/day), cortisone (CORT) (5mg/day) or vehicle (control, CTRL). RESULTS: Both glucocorticoids had a similar thymolytic effect and caused growth failure, but the growth rate for the DFZ group was significantly higher than that of the CORT group. On day 46, pulsatile GH secretion was quantitated by blood sampling via an indwelling catheter at 10 min intervals for 6h. GH was assayed by RIA and analyzed by multiparameter deconvolution. CORT caused an increase in pulse frequency (5.8+/-0.4 (s.e.m.)) in comparison to DFZ (4.4+/-0. 4) and CTRL (3.8+/-0.3). Both glucocorticoids significantly shortened the interval between secretory bursts. In CTRL animals the interval between bursts was 69.3+/-4.5 min. In DFZ animals this was reduced to 58.5+/-7.1 min, and in CORT rats it was further reduced to 47.0+/-2.6 min. The mass of GH secreted per burst was reduced in CORT animals (52% of CTRL), while DFZ did not alter this parameter. A similar trend was observed for total GH production, with CORT causing a reduction and DFZ not affecting the secretion. CONCLUSION: Rats treated with glucocorticoid show a profound thymolytic effect, as well as important changes in growth. While CORT suppresses GH secretion and alters its pulsatile mode of release, DFZ causes a less significant alteration in the pattern of GH secretion and does not negatively affect the overall amount of GH secreted. (+info)
Characterization of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and corticosteroid receptor expression in human osteosarcoma cell lines.
Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that corticosteroids play an important role in bone physiology and pathophysiology. It is now established that corticosteroid hormone action is regulated, in part, at the pre-receptor level through the expression of isozymes of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD), which are responsible for the interconversion of hormonally active cortisol to cortisone. In this report we demonstrate 11beta-HSD activity in human osteoblast (OB) cells. Osteosarcoma-derived OB cell lines TE-85, MG-63 and SaOS-2 and fibrosarcoma Hs913T cells express the type 2 isoform of 11beta-HSD, as determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and specific enzyme assays. Enzyme activity was shown to be strictly NAD dependent with a Km of approximately 71 nM; 11beta-HSD type 1 mRNA expression and enzyme activity were not detected. All four cell lines expressed mRNA for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor, but specific binding was only detectable with radiolabelled dexamethasone (Kd=10 nM) and not aldosterone. MG-63 cells had two to three times more GR than the other OB cells, which correlated with the higher levels of 11beta-HSD 2 activity in these cells. In contrast to the osteosarcoma cell studies, RT-PCR analysis of primary cultures of human OB cells revealed the presence of mRNA for 11beta-HSD 1 as well as 11beta-HSD 2. However, enzyme activity in these cells remained predominantly oxidative, i.e. inactivation of cortisol to cortisone (147 pmol/h per mg protein at 500 nM cortisol) was greater than cortisone to cortisol (10.3 pmol/h per mg protein at 250 nM cortisone). Data from normal human OB and osteosarcoma cells demonstrate the presence of an endogenous mechanism for inactivation of glucocorticoids in OB cells. We postulate that expression of the type 1 and type 2 isoforms of 11beta-HSD in human bone plays an important role in normal bone homeostasis, and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteoporosis. (+info)
Assessment of the follicular cortisol:cortisone ratio.
Cortisol and cortisone concentrations in serum and follicular fluid (FF) from women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment were monitored. Four groups were included: group 1, women in their natural menstrual cycle having an endogenous mid-cycle surge of gonadotrophins; group 2, women in their natural menstrual cycle receiving human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) for ovulation induction; group 3, women receiving exogenous gonadotrophins for ovarian stimulation and HCG for ovulation induction; and group 4, women receiving exogenous gonadotrophins for ovarian stimulation, follicles being aspirated immediately before administration of HCG. In this study, 12 follicles contained oocytes which resulted in clinical pregnancy after IVF. Cortisone concentrations were significantly higher in FF compared with that of matched serum samples, while the opposite was observed for cortisol, resulting in cortisol:cortisone ratios being significantly lower in FF compared with serum. FF from group 4 showed significantly higher cortisone concentrations than FF from each of the other three groups. FF from group 1 showed significantly higher cortisone concentrations and significantly lower cortisol:cortisone ratios in comparison with groups 2 and 3. None of the observed parameters pinpointed any of the follicles containing oocytes which resulted in a clinical pregnancy. The intrafollicular concentrations of cortisol and cortisone suggest that pre-ovulatory follicles actively convert cortisol to cortisone. Neither FF concentrations of cortisol and cortisone nor the cortisol:cortisone ratio seem to reflect implantation potential of the derived pre-embryos. (+info)
Hypercalcemia accompanied by hypothalamic hypopituitarism, central diabetes inspidus and hyperthyroidism.
We present here a case of prominent hypercalcemia accompanied by hypothalamic tumor and Graves' disease. A 24-year-old man with hypothalamic tumor showed hypopituitarism, central diabetes inspidus (DI) and hyperthyroidism. Nausea, loss of thirst and appetite, and general fatigue were found with the unveiling of hypercalcemia and hypernatremia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1alpha-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were suppressed with a normal range of PTH-related protein values. One-desamino-(8-D-arginine)-vasopressin (DDAVP) and half-saline administration normalized hypernatremia, while hypercalcemia was still sustained. Administration of cortisone acetate and thiamazole reduced the elevated serum Ca level. In the present case, concurrent hyperthyroidism was assumed to accelerate skeletal mobilization of calcium into the circulation. Hypocortisolism and central DI was also considered to contribute, to some extent, to the hypercalcemia through renal handling of Ca. (+info)