Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.
The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use. (+info
High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice.
Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability. (+info
Alteration of circadian time structure of blood pressure caused by night shift schedule.
The effects of night shift schedules on circadian time structure of blood pressure were studied in seven healthy young subjects by continuous monitoring of blood pressure every 30 min for 72 h. In the control experiment, subjects were instructed to sleep at regular times with the light off at 00.00 h and the light on at 07.00 h. In the shift experiment, they were instructed to go to bed at 06.00 h and wake up at 11.00 h. The circadian rhythm of blood pressure rapidly phase delayed by 3.5 h in the second night shift day as a group phenomenon. Individual differences in changes in power spectral patterns of blood pressure were found in the night shift schedule. Ultradian rhythmicity of blood pressure was more pronounced in three subjects, whereas the circadian rhythmicity was maintained in four subjects. These findings held when the adaptation to shift work was taken into account. (+info
Circadian variation in the expression of cell-cycle proteins in human oral epithelium.
At the tissue level, there is experimental and clinical data to suggest a cytokinetic coordination of the cell cycle with a greater proportion of cycling cells entering S-phase and mitosis at specific times of the day. The association of certain cell-cycle proteins with defined events in the cell cycle is well established and may be used to study the timing of cell-cycle phases over 24 hours. In this study oral mucosal biopsies were obtained from six normal human volunteers at 4-hour intervals, six times over 24 hours. Using immunohistochemistry, the number of positive cells expressing the proteins p53, cyclin-E, cyclin-A, cyclin-B1, and Ki-67 was determined for each biopsy and expressed as the number of positive cells per mm of basement membrane. We found a statistically significant circadian variation in the nuclear expression of all of these proteins with the high point of expression for p53 at 10:56 hours, cyclin-E at 14:59 hours, cyclin-A at 16:09 hours, cyclin-B1 at 21:13 hours, and Ki-67 at 02:50 hours. The circadian variation in the nuclear expression of cyclins-E (G1/S phase), -A (G2-phase), and -B1 (M-phase) with a normal physiological progression over time suggests a statistically significant circadian variation in oral epithelial cell proliferation. The finding of a circadian variation in the nuclear expression of p53 protein corresponding to late G1 is novel. This information has clinical implications regarding the timing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (+info
The biological clock of very premature primate infants is responsive to light.
Each year more than 250,000 infants in the United States are exposed to artificial lighting in hospital nurseries with little consideration given to environmental lighting cycles. Essential in determining whether environmental lighting cycles need to be considered in hospital nurseries is identifying when the infant's endogenous circadian clock becomes responsive to light. Using a non-human primate model of the developing human, we examined when the circadian clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), becomes responsive to light. Preterm infant baboons of different ages were exposed to light (5,000 lux) at night, and then changes in SCN metabolic activity and gene expression were assessed. After exposure to bright light at night, robust increases in SCN metabolic activity and gene expression were seen at ages that were equivalent to human infants at 24 weeks after conception. These data provide direct evidence that the biological clock of very premature primate infants is responsive to light. (+info
Effects of different light intensities during the daytime on circadian rhythm of core temperature in humans.
The present study was to determine the effects of bright light exposure during the daytime on core temperature rhythm. Eight female students participated as subjects. They were exposed to bright light of 5000 lux or dim light of 200 lux for 13 hours (06:30-19:30) for two consecutive days. Except the sleep period (22:30-06:30) and during the bright light exposure, light intensity was controlled at 200 lux. Rectal temperature data were collected every 10 min throughout the whole experimental period. The mean level of rectal temperature was not significantly different between the bright and the dim light conditions. However, the evening fall and the morning rise of rectal temperature were significantly greater in the bright light conditions on Day 2 compared to the dim. Furthermore, cosinor analysis showed that the acrophase of rectal temperature rhythm was earlier on Day 2 in the bright light conditions than the dim, and was significantly delayed on Day 2 compared to Day 1 in the dim light conditions. These results suggest that low intensity during the daytime for two consecutive days may induce a phase delay of core temperature rhythm rather than the bright light exposure at least in normally entrained female subjects. (+info
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and progression in patients with IgA nephropathy.
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a recognized marker of poor prognosis in IgA nephropathy. METHODS: The present study investigated the prevalence of white-coat hypertension, the diurnal rhythm of blood pressure (BP), the effectiveness of antihypertensive drug therapy, and the effect of the above on the progression of the kidney disease in IgA nephropathy. One hundred twenty-six IgA nephropathy patients were selected consecutively for 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Fifty-five patients were normotensive and 71 were treated hypertensives. Their antihypertensive drugs were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) alone or in combination with calcium-channel blockers (CCB). RESULTS: The mean night-time BP of normotensives (108+/-9/67+/-6 mmHg) was significantly lower than their day-time BP (125+/-8/82+/-7 mmHg, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean day-time and night-time BP in hypertensive patients (125+/-9/82+/-7 mmHg vs 128+/-10/85+/-9 mmHg). The circadian variation of BP was preserved ('dippers') in 82% of the normotensive and 7% of the hypertensive patients (P<0.001). There were 10 'white-coat hypertensives' among the patients classified as normotensives with ABPM (mean office blood pressure 149+/-7/96+/-8 mmHg, 24-h blood pressure 127+/-6/83+/-5 mmHg, P<0.05) and 14 among treated hypertensives (mean office BP 152+/-8/98+/-6 mmHg, 24-h BP 130+/-4/85+/-8 mmHg, P<0.05). There was no difference in mean day-time BP among normotensive and treated hypertensive patients (125+/-8/81+/-5 mmHg vs 128+/-10/85+/-9 mmHg). Hypertensives had significantly higher night-time BP (125+/-9/85+/-9 mmHg) than normotensives (108+/-9/67+/-6 mmHg, P<0.001). There was no difference in serum creatinine levels among the different groups at the time of the ABPM. However, thirty-six+/-4.1 months after the ABPM, hypertensive patients (n=52) had higher serum creatinine levels (124+/-32 micromol/l) than at the time of the ABPM (101+/-28 micromol/l). The serum creatinine of normotensive patients (n=43) did not change during the follow-up period. 'Non-dipper' normotensives (n=10) had significantly higher serum creatinine levels at the end of the follow-up period than at its beginning (106+/-17 micromol/l vs 89+/-18 micromol/l, P<0.05). There was no increase in serum creatinine of 'dipper' normotensives. The mean serum creatinine of 'white-coat hypertensives' was significantly higher at the end of the study period than at its beginning. CONCLUSIONS: There is no diurnal blood pressure variation in most of the hypertensive IgA nephropathy patients. ACEI and CCB treatment have better effect on day-time than night-time hypertension. The lack of the circadian rhythm and 'white-coat hypertension' seems to accelerate the progression of IgA nephropathy. (+info
Diurnal variation and age differences in the biochemical markers of bone turnover in horses.
Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide sensitive, rapid, and noninvasive monitoring of bone resorption and formation. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) reflect rates of bone formation, and urinary concentrations of the pyridinium crosslinks pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) are specific and sensitive markers of bone resorption. These markers are age-dependent and are used to detect and monitor changes in the rates of bone turnover in a variety of orthopedic diseases in humans and may prove to have similar application in horses. This study examined age differences and diurnal variation in OC, Pyd, and Dpd in eight adult geldings and seven weanling colts. Blood and urine were collected at regular intervals over 24 h. Serum OC and cortisol, and urinary Pyd and Dpd were analyzed. Mean 24-h concentrations of cortisol and all three markers were higher (P<.003) in weanlings than adults. Significant 24-h variation was observed in adult gelding OC, Pyd, and Dpd concentrations (P< .02). Adult OC concentrations were highest between 2400 and 0900; Pyd and Dpd peaked between 0200 and 0800. Similar patterns of bone turnover were observed in weanling values, but they were not significant (P>.17) owing to greater variability between individuals. Cortisol secretion varied (P<.001) over 24 h in both adults and weanlings and, thus, did not seem to be responsible for greater variability in markers of bone turnover between weanlings. These data demonstrate that diurnal rhythms exist for serum OC and urinary Pyd and Dpd in adult horses, as reported in humans, and that sample timing is an important consideration in future equine studies using these markers. (+info