Blocking angiotensin II ameliorates proteinuria and glomerular lesions in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis.
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is thought to be involved in the progression of glomerulonephritis (GN) into end-stage renal failure (ESRF) because of the observed renoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs have pharmacological effects other than ACE inhibition that may help lower blood pressure and preserve glomerular structure. We previously reported a new animal model of progressive glomerulosclerosis induced by a single intravenous injection of an anti-Thy-1 monoclonal antibody, MoAb 1-22-3, in uninephrectomized rats. Using this new model of progressive GN, we examined the hypothesis that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and extracellular matrix components. METHODS: We studied the effect of an ACEI (cilazapril) and an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) on the clinical features and morphological lesions in the rat model previously reported. After 10 weeks of treatment with equihypotensive doses of cilazapril, cilazapril plus Hoe 140 (a bradykinin receptor B2 antagonist), candesartan, and hydralazine, we examined systolic blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, creatinine clearance, the glomerulosclerosis index, and the tubulointerstitial lesion index. We performed a semiquantitative evaluation of glomerular immunostaining for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III by immunofluorescence study and of these cortical mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Untreated rats developed massive proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, whereas uninephrectomized control rats did not. There was a significant increase in the levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III in untreated rats. Cilazapril and candesartan prevented massive proteinuria, increased creatinine clearance, and ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury. These drugs also reduced levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III. Hoe 140 failed to blunt the renoprotective effect of cilazapril. Hydralazine did not exhibit a renoprotective effect. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of Ang II via Ang II type 1 receptor on the production of TGF-beta and collagen types I and III, as well as on intrarenal hemodynamics, but not by either increasing bradykinin activity or reducing blood pressure in this rat model of mesangial proliferative GN. (+info)
Quality of life in chronic heart failure: cilazapril and captopril versus placebo. Cilazapril-Captopril Multicentre Group.
OBJECTIVE: To measure quality of life (QOL) in patients with mild to moderate heart failure treated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors cilazapril or captopril. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel groups trial. SUBJECTS: 367 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure class II (62%), III (36%) or IV (1%). METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive cilazapril 1 mg daily (n = 191) or captopril 25 mg three times daily (n = 90) for 24 weeks, or placebo for 12 weeks followed by cilazapril 1 mg daily for a further 12 weeks (n = 86). If patients had not responded after four weeks cilazapril was increased to 2.5 mg daily and captopril to 50 mg three times daily. QOL was assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks using the sickness impact profile (SIP), the profile of mood states (POMS), the Mahler index of dyspnoea-fatigue, and a health status index (HSI). RESULTS: The physical dimension of the SIP averaged 7 units at baseline and improved after 12 weeks by 2.24 units in the cilazapril group, 2.38 units in the captopril group, and 1.51 units in the placebo group. The difference between drug and placebo was therefore 0.73 units (95% CI -0.86 to 2.32) for cilazapril, and 0.87 units (95% CI -0.96 to 2.70) for captopril, with small non-significant effect sizes (a statistical method for estimating the importance of a treatment related change) of 0.12 and 0.14. Similar results were observed for the total POMS and HSI scores. Although QOL improved more on the ACE inhibitors than on placebo, the effect sizes were not significant (< or = 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in QOL in mild to moderate heart failure were small when treated with cilazapril or captopril compared with placebo. (+info)
Effects of candesartan and cilazapril on rats with myocardial infarction assessed by echocardiography.
The purpose of this study was to compare the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist candesartan cilexitil (candesartan) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril on cardiac function, assessed by Doppler echocardiography and cardiac gene expression associated with cardiac remodeling, in rats with myocardial infarction. Candesartan or cilazapril was administered after myocardial infarction. At 1 and 4 weeks after myocardial infarction, cardiac function and mRNA expression in noninfarcted myocardium were analyzed. Candesartan and cilazapril equally prevented increases in hypertrophy in noninfarcted myocardium, left ventricular dilatation, and ejection fraction at 4 weeks. The E-wave/A-wave velocity ratio and the rate of E-wave deceleration, measures of diastolic function, increased to 9.2+/-0.6 and 26.3+/-2. 6 m/s2 at 1 week after myocardial infarction. Candesartan and cilazapril, administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg per day, prevented increases in E-wave/A-wave velocity ratio and E-wave deceleration at 1 and 4 weeks. Candesartan and cilazapril significantly suppressed increased mRNA expression of beta-myosin heavy chain, alpha-skeletal actin, and atrial natriuretic peptide in noninfarcted ventricle at 1 and 4 weeks and expression of collagen I and III at 4 weeks to a similar extent. When given at a dose of 10 mg/kg per day, both candesartan and cilazapril prevented cardiac dysfunction and gene expression to the same extent as when given at 1 mg/kg per day. In conclusion, Doppler echocardiography showed that candesartan and cilazapril equally improved systolic and diastolic function and that ventricular remodeling accompanied modulation of cardiac gene expression. (+info)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and AT1 receptor blockade modify the pressure-natriuresis relationship by additive mechanisms in rats with human renin and angiotensinogen genes.
The intrarenal factors responsible for hypertension in double-transgenic rats (dTGR) harboring human renin and human angiotensinogen genes are unclear. The pressure-natriuresis and -diuresis relationships in response to chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and AT1 receptor blockade were evaluated. Renal renin-angiotensin and nitric oxide (NO) system gene expression was also investigated. Six-week-old dTGR were treated for 3 wk with submaximal doses of cilazapril (10 mg/kg, orally) or losartan (10 mg/kg, orally) or with the drug combination. In untreated dTGR, pressure-natriuresis relationships were maximally shifted rightward by approximately 70 to 80 mmHg, and both renal blood flow (RBF) and GFR were markedly decreased. Submaximal cilazapril and losartan dosages both decreased systolic BP by 30 mmHg and shifted the pressure-natriuresis curves leftward by 25 to 30 mmHg. Cilazapril increased RBF and GFR to values observed in normotensive control animals but did not significantly affect fractional sodium excretion (FENa) or fractional water excretion (FEH2O) curves. In contrast, losartan had no significant effect on RBF or GFR but shifted the FENa and FEH2O curves leftward. The cilazapril and losartan combination completely normalized BP and shifted the pressure-natriuresis curves leftward more than did either drug alone. When cilazapril and losartan were administered at higher doses (30 mg/kg, orally), the two drugs equally shifted the pressure-natriuresis curves leftward, by 50 mmHg. Both drugs increased RBF and GFR; however, only losartan shifted FENa and FEH2O curves leftward. Human and rat renin and angiotensinogen genes were downregulated in dTGR and were increased by losartan and cilazapril treatments, whereas no changes in the expression of rat ACE and AT1A receptor genes were observed. Endothelial NO synthase expression was increased by cilazapril but not by losartan. Neither inducible NO synthase nor neural NO synthase gene expression was affected by drug treatments. Therefore, submaximal ACE inhibition enhanced sodium excretion mainly by increasing RBF and GFR, whereas submaximal AT1 receptor blockade decreased tubular sodium and water reabsorption. The combination of the two drugs produced an additive effect. The ACE inhibitor effects may involve increased endothelial NO synthase expression, perhaps related to the inhibition of bradykinin degradation. (+info)
Prevention of renal damage by angiotensin II blockade, accompanied by increased renal hepatocyte growth factor in experimental hypertensive rats.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a unique growth factor that has many protective functions against renal damage. Our previous study demonstrated that HGF stimulated the growth of endothelial and epithelial cells without the replication of mesangial cells. Moreover, angiotensin (Ang) II significantly decreased local HGF production in mesangial cells. Therefore, we examined the effects of Ang II blockade on renal HGF expression and renal damage in experimental hypertensive rats. An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (cilazapril; 10 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (E-4177; 30 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), hydralazine (8 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), and vehicle were administered to 16-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) for 3 weeks. Renal damage was evaluated with a computer analysis system, and renal HGF mRNA was measured by Northern blot analysis. Blood pressure of SHR-SP was significantly decreased by all drug treatments compared with vehicle. Moreover, cilazapril, E-4177, and hydralazine significantly decreased the thickening and necrosis of blood vessels compared with vehicle. Similarly, degeneration and necrosis of glomeruli were also markedly improved by cilazapril and E-4177 (P<0.01). We next examined the effects of Ang II blockade on renal HGF expression in SHR-SP. Renal HGF mRNA was markedly decreased in SHR-SP compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, although Ang II blockade by cilazapril and E-4177 but not hydralazine significantly increased renal HGF mRNA in SHR-SP. Ang II blockade significantly increased renal HGF (a protective growth factor for tubular epithelial cells); thus, we examined tubular histological appearance. Degeneration and necrosis of tubules were significantly improved by cilazapril and E-4177 treatment (P<0.01). In addition, cell infiltration into the glomeruli and hemorrhage were also significantly reduced in SHR-SP treated with cilazapril or E-4177. The present data demonstrated the prevention of renal damage by Ang II blockade in SHR-SP, which was accompanied by a significant increase in renal HGF mRNA. Given the strong mitogenic activity and antiapoptotic actions of HGF on endothelial and epithelial cells, we believe that increased local HGF production by the blockade of Ang II may improve renal function in hypertension. (+info)
Zonal heterogeneity in action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on renal microcirculation: role of intrarenal bradykinin.
The present study examined the role of intrarenal bradykinin in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced dilation of renal afferent (AFF) and efferent arterioles (EFF) in vivo, and further evaluated whether ACEI-stimulated bradykinin activity differed in superficial (SP) and juxtamedullary nephrons (JM). Arterioles of canine kidneys were visualized with an intravital charge-coupled device camera microscope. E4177 (an angiotensin receptor antagonist, 30 microg/kg) dilated AFF and EFF in SP (15 +/- 3% and 19 +/- 5%) and JM (15 +/- 3% and 18 +/- 4%). Subsequently, cilazaprilat (30 microg/kg) caused further dilation of both AFF (29 +/- 4%) and EFF (36 +/- 4%) in JM, whereas in SP it dilated only EFF (29 +/-3%). Similarly, in the presence of E4177, cilazaprilat caused further increases in sodium excretion. This cilazaprilat-induced vasodilation and natriuresis was abolished by a bradykinin antagonist (N(alpha)-adamantaneacetyl-D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]b radykinin). In parallel with these results, cilazaprilat increased renal bradykinin content, more greatly in the medulla than in the cortex (5.7 +/- 0.4 versus 4.6 +/- 0.1 ng/g). Similarly, cilazaprilat elicited greater bradykinin-dependent increases of nitrite/nitrate in the medulla. In conclusion, zonal heterogeneity in renal bradykinin/nitric oxide levels and segmental differences in reactivity to bradykinin contribute to the diverse responsiveness of renal AFF and EFF to ACEI. ACEI-enhanced kinin action would participate in the amelioration of glomerular hemodynamics and renal sodium excretion by ACEI. (+info)
Normal blood pressure and plasma renin activity in mice lacking the renin-binding protein, a cellular renin inhibitor.
In renal extracts, some renin is present as "high molecular weight renin," a heterodimeric complex of renin with the 46-kDa renin-binding protein (RnBP), also known as N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase. Because RnBP specifically inhibits renin activity, the protein was proposed to play an important role in the regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Using gene targeting, we have generated mice lacking RnBP and tested this hypothesis in vivo. In particular, we analyzed biosynthesis, secretion, and activity of renin and other components of the RAS in mice lacking RnBP. Despite extensive investigations, we were unable to detect any major effects of RnBP deficiency on the plasma and renal RAS or on blood pressure regulation. Contrary to previous hypotheses, we conclude that RnBP does not play a significant role in the regulation of renin activity in plasma or kidney. However, RnBP knockout mice excrete an abnormal pattern of carbohydrates in the urine, indicating a role of the protein in renal carbohydrate metabolism. (+info)
Long-term effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in volume overloaded heart during growth: a controlled pilot study.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether long-term therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor reduces excessive increases in left ventricular (LV) mass as well as volume in growing children with aortic regurgitation or mitral regurgitation. BACKGROUND: The ACE inhibitor reduces volume overload and LV hypertrophy in adults with aortic or mitral regurgitation. METHODS: This study included 24 patients whose ages ranged from 0.3 to 16 years at entry to the study. On echocardiography, we measured LV size, systolic function and mass. After obtaining baseline data, patients were allocated into two groups. Twelve patients were given an ACE inhibitor (ACE inhibitor group), and 12 patients were not (control group). Echo parameters were again assessed after an average 3.4 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Left ventricular parameters at baseline in the two groups were similar. The Z value of LV end-diastolic dimensions decreased from +0.82 +/- 0.55 to +0.57 +/- 0.58 in the ACE inhibitor group, whereas it increased from +0.73 +/- 0.85 to +1.14 +/- 1.04 in the control group (mean change -0.25 +/- 0.33 for the ACE inhibitor group vs. +0.42 +/- 0.48 for the control group, p = 0.0007). The mass normalized to growth also reduced from 221 +/- 93% to 149 +/- 44% of normal in the ACE inhibitor group and increased from 167 +/- 46% to 204 +/-59% of normal in the control group (mean change -72 +/- 89% of normal for the ACE inhibitor group vs. +37 +/- 35% of normal for the control group, p = 0.0007). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment with ACE inhibitors is effective in reducing not only LV volume overload but also LV hypertrophy in the hearts of growing children with LV volume overload. (+info)