Mutation of a conserved serine residue in a quinolone-resistant type II topoisomerase alters the enzyme-DNA and drug interactions.
A Ser740 --> Trp mutation in yeast topoisomerase II (top2) and of the equivalent Ser83 in gyrase results in resistance to quinolones and confers hypersensitivity to etoposide (VP-16). We characterized the cleavage complexes induced by the top2(S740W) in the human c-myc gene. In addition to resistance to the fluoroquinolone CP-115,953, top2(S740W) induced novel DNA cleavage sites in the presence of VP-16, azatoxin, amsacrine, and mitoxantrone. Analysis of the VP-16 sites indicated that the changes in the cleavage pattern were reflected by alterations in base preference. C at position -2 and G at position +6 were observed for the top2(S740W) in addition to the previously reported C-1 and G+5 for the wild-type top2. The VP-16-induced top2(S740W) cleavage complexes were also more stable. The most stable sites had strong preference for C-1, whereas the most reversible sites showed no base preference at positions -1 or -2. Different patterns of DNA cleavage were also observed in the absence of drug and in the presence of calcium. These results indicate that the Ser740 --> Trp mutation alters the DNA recognition of top2, enhances its DNA binding, and markedly affects its interactions with inhibitors. Thus, residue 740 of top2 appears critical for both DNA and drug interactions. (+info)
Vasopressin V2 receptor enhances gain of baroreflex in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats.
The aim of the present study was to determine the receptor subtype involved in arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced modulation of baroreflex function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats using novel nonpeptide AVP V1- and V2-receptor antagonists. Baroreceptor heart rate (HR) reflex was investigated in both SHR and WKY rats which were intravenously administered the selective V1- and V2-receptor antagonists OPC-21268 and OPC-31260, respectively. Baroreflex function was assessed by obtaining alternate pressor and depressor responses to phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, to construct baroreflex curves. In both SHR and WKY rats baroreflex activity was tested before and after intravenous administration of vehicle (20% DMSO), OPC-21268 (10 mg/kg), and OPC-31260 (1 and 10 mg/kg). Vehicle did not significantly alter basal mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR values or baroreflex function in SHR or WKY rats. The V1-receptor antagonist had no significant effect on resting MAP or HR values or on baroreflex parameters in both groups of rats, although this dose was shown to significantly inhibit the pressor response to AVP (5 ng iv; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In SHR but not WKY rats the V2-receptor antagonist significantly attenuated the gain (or slope) of the baroreflex curve (to 73 +/- 3 and 79 +/- 7% of control for 1 and 10 mg/kg, respectively), although AVP-induced pressor responses were also attenuated with the higher dose of the V2-receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that AVP tonically enhances baroreflex function through a V2 receptor in the SHR. (+info)
Carrier-mediated lung distribution of HSR-903, a new quinolone antibacterial agent.
HSR-903 [(S)-(-)-5-amino-7-(7-amino-5-azaspiro[2. 4]hept-5-yl)-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1, 4-dihydro-8-methyl-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid methanesulfonate] is a newly synthesized quinolone with a potent antibacterial activity and a low toxicity. The lung concentration of unchanged HSR-903 was about nine times higher than that in plasma after oral administration (5 mg/kg) in rats. In comparative studies, HSR-903 was accumulated more efficiently than levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and lomefloxacin in rat lung. To clarify the mechanism of the specific distribution of HSR-903 into the lung, the uptake of [14C]HSR-903 was studied using isolated rat lung cells and an isolated rat lung perfusion technique. Initial uptake of HSR-903 by isolated lung cells was temperature dependent, saturable, stereospecific, and Na+ and Cl- dependent. The Hill coefficients (1. 90 for Na+ and 1.13 for Cl-) suggest that two Na+ and one Cl- are associated with the transport of one HSR-903 molecule. The uptake of HSR-903 was inhibited by other quinolone antibacterial agents, grepafloxacin, and sparfloxacin. The extraction ratio of HSR-903 in isolated lung perfusion was temperature dependent and saturable. These findings suggest that HSR-903 is taken up by the lung cells via a carrier-mediated transport mechanism, resulting in a concentrative distribution into the lung. (+info)
Activation of a cGMP-stimulated cAMP phosphodiesterase by protein kinase C in a liver Golgi-endosomal fraction.
The ability of Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C, PKC) to stimulate cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in a liver Golgi-endosomal (GE) fraction was examined in vivo and in a cell-free system. Injection into rats of 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a known activator of PKC, caused a rapid and marked increase in PKC activity (+325% at 10 min) in the GE fraction, along with an increase in the abundance of the PKC alpha-isoform as seen on Western immunoblots. Concurrently, 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment caused a time-dependent increase in cAMP PDE activity in the GE fraction (96% at 30 min). Addition of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) to GE fractions from control and 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated rats led to a comparable increase (130-150%) in PDE activity, suggesting that PKA is probably not involved in the in-vivo effect of 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In contrast, addition of purified PKC increased (twofold) PDE activity in GE fractions from control rats but affected only slightly the activity in GE fractions from 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated rats. About 50% of the Triton-X-100-solubilized cAMP PDE activity in the GE fraction was immunoprecipitated with an anti-PDE3 antibody. On DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, three peaks of PDE were sequentially eluted: one early peak, which was stimulated by cGMP and inhibited by erythro-9 (2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA); a selective inhibitor of type 2 PDEs; and two retarded peaks of activity, which were potently inhibited by cGMP and cilostamide, an inhibitor of type 3 PDEs. Further characterization of peak I by HPLC resolved a major peak which was activated (threefold) by 5 microM cGMP and inhibited (87%) by 25 microM EHNA, and a minor peak which was insensitive to EHNA and cilostamide. 4 beta-Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment caused a selective increase (2.5-fold) in the activity associated with DEAE-Sephacel peak I, without changing the K(m) value. These results suggest that PKC selectively activates a PDE2, cGMP-stimulated isoform in the GE fraction. (+info)
A mutation in QRDR in the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV was responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Forty-one strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from 1991 to 1997. Isolates were divided into six groups based on MICs of three quinolones, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin. Sequencing showed that the isolates which were intermediately resistant to three quinolones or resistant to at least one kind of quinolone had one missense mutation, Lys137-->Asn(AAG-->AAT) substitution in the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV without additional mutation in QRDR of the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase. In conclusion, the ParC subunit of DNA topoisomerase IV is the primary target site for fluoroquinolone in S. pneumoniae and Lys137-->Asn substitution renders the quinolone resistance in S. pneumoniae. (+info)
Inflammatory pseudotumor in a cat with cutaneous mycobacteriosis.
A 5-year-old, castrated male, domestic Shorthair Cat had an ulcerated mass with fistulous tracts on the left hind paw. Homogeneous tan tissue diffusely infiltrated the dermis and subcutis of the paw and extended proximally so that, short of amputation, complete excision was not feasible. Biopsy specimens consisted of granulation tissue with marked proliferation of spindle cells. Neutrophils and histiocytic cells were scattered among the spindle cells. The histiocytic cells had abundant foamy or vacuolated cytoplasm, but features of granulomatous inflammation, such as epithelioid macrophages or granuloma formation, were not observed. The initial impression was inflammatory granulation tissue, but the degree of fibroplasia prompted inclusion of fibrosarcoma in the differential diagnosis. Cutaneous mycobacteriosis was diagnosed when numerous acid-fast bacteria were identified with Kinyoun's stain; Mycobacterium avium was subsequently cultured. The cat was euthanatized because of lack of response to enrofloxacin therapy. At necropsy, lesions were localized to the hind limb. Not only is mycobacteriosis an uncommon cause of cutaneous masses in cats, but this case was unusual because of the lack of granuloma formation and the similarity of the mass to a spindle cell tumor. (+info)
Indomethacin-induced gastric antral damage in hamsters: are neutrophils involved?
BACKGROUND: A direct role for neutrophils in the pathophysiology of indomethacin-induced gastric damage is controversial. Therefore, such damage was evaluated in hamsters. METHODS: Gastric antral damage was evaluated 4 h after the oro-gastric administration of indomethacin (30 mg/kg). Prior to indomethacin, hamsters were treated with various pharmacological agents: rebamipide, methotrexate or anti-neutrophil serum (ANS). The number of circulating neutrophils was determined from Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured as a marker of gastric antral neutrophil infiltration. RESULTS: Indomethacin caused primarily gastric antral damage. By histology, this damage did not penetrate the muscularis mucosa. A significant increase in gastric antral MPO activity was also found in indomethacin-treated hamsters. Rebamipide decreased macroscopic gastric antral damage in a dose-related fashion. Methotrexate treatment reduced the circulating blood neutrophil number by 38-44%, but did not affect gastric damage. ANS treatment resulted in near complete neutropenia, and also in a substantial reduction (84%) in gastric antral MPO activity. However, gastric antral damage was not significantly altered by ANS. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophils are not directly involved in the pathophysiology of indomethacin-induced damage to the hamster gastric antrum. (+info)
Pharmacodynamic effects of subinhibitory concentrations of rufloxacin on bacterial virulence factors.
It has been reported that subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of some fluoroquinolones are still capable of affecting the topological characteristics of DNA (inhibition DNA-gyrase) and that this leads to a reduction in some of the factors responsible for bacterial virulence (by means of the disruption of protein synthesis and alterations in phenotype expression), even though the microorganisms themselves are not killed. The present study investigated the ability of sub-MICs of rufloxacin, an orally absorbed monofluorinated quinolone with a long half-life (28 to 30 h), to interfere with the bacterial virulence parameters of adhesiveness, hemagglutination, hydrophobicity, motility, and filamentation, as well as their interactions with host neutrophilic defenses such as phagocytosis, killing, and oxidative bursts. It was observed that Escherichia coli adhesiveness was significantly reduced at rufloxacin concentrations of 1/32 MIC, hemagglutination and hydrophobicity were significantly reduced at concentrations of, respectively, 1/4 MIC and 1/8 MIC, and motility was significantly reduced at concentrations of 1/16 MIC; filamentation was still present at concentrations of 1/4 MIC. Phagocytosis was not affected, but killing significantly increased from 1/2 MIC to 1/8 MIC; oxidative bursts measured by means of chemiluminescence were not affected. The fact that sub-MICs are still effective in interfering with the parameters of bacterial virulence is useful information that needs to be correlated with pharmacokinetic data in order to extend our knowledge of the most effective concentrations that can be used to optimize treatment schedules, for example, single administrations, particularly in noncomplicated lower urinary tract infections. (+info)