Gastric PDX-1 expression in pancreatic metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia in atrophic corpus gastritis. (1/531)

The homeodomain transcription factor PDX-1 plays a key role in endocrine and exocrine differentiation processes of the pancreas. PDX-1 is also essential for differentiation of endocrine cells in the gastric antrum. The role of PDX-1 in the pathogenesis of endocrine cell hyperplasia and pancreatic metaplasia in corpus and fundus gastritis has not been evaluated. By immunohistochemistry and double-immunofluorescence, we investigated the expression of PDX-1 in 10 tissue specimens with normal human gastric mucosa, nonatrophic and atrophic gastritis and in pancreatic metaplasia, respectively. In normal corpus mucosa and in nonatrophic corpus gastritis, PDX-1 was mainly absent. In pancreatic metaplasia, PDX-1 was found in metaplastic cells and in adjacent gastric glands. In contrast to normal gastric corpus mucosa, PDX-1 could be strongly detected in the cytoplasm of the parietal cells surrounding metaplastic areas. Furthermore, PDX-1 expression was found in hyperplastic endocrine cells and in the surrounding gastric glands in chronic atrophic gastritis. Hyperplastic endocrine cells coexpressed the beta-subunit of the gastric H,K-ATPase. We conclude that PDX-1 represents a candidate switch factor for glandular exocrine and endocrine transdifferentiation in chronic gastritis and that an impaired parietal cell differentiation might play a key role in disturbed gastric morphogenic processes.  (+info)

Gene profile for differentiation of vascular adventitial myofibroblasts. (2/531)

Our previous study demonstrated that TGF-beta1 could induce the differentiation of vascular adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) to myofibroblasts (MFs). The aim of this study was to identify the genes which might be responsible for the cell phenotypic change using genechips. Cultured rat AFs were treated with TGF-beta1 (10 ng/ml) for 0 min, 5 min, 15 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Then the cells were gathered to prepare total RNA. We examined TGF-beta1-induced gene expression profiling using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays and analyzed data by GCOS1.2 software. Moreover, expressional similarity was measured by hierarchical clustering. Some of genechip results were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 2121 genes with a 2-fold change or above after TGF-beta1 stimulation. 1318 genes showed a greater than 2-fold increase and 761 genes were reduced 2 folds or more at mRNA levels, whereas a small portion of the total regulated genes (42 genes) displayed dynamically up- and down-regulated pattern. Genes were further segregated for early (peak at 5 min, 15 min and/or 2 h), late (peak at 12 h and/or 24 h), and sustained (2-fold change or above at five time points) temporal response groups according to the time of their peak expression level. Among 1318 up-regulated genes, 333 genes (25.3%) responded rapidly to TGF-beta1 and 159 genes (12.1%) responded in a sustained manner. Most genes (826, 62.6%) were regulated at 12 h or later. For the 761 down-regulated genes, numbers of early and late responsive genes were 335 (44%) and 267 (36.1%), respectively. There were also 159 genes, 19.9% of total down-regulated genes, decreased at five time points treated by TGF-beta1. The results suggested that the gene expressions of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (APP1) and Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase 2 (ROCK2) had the same trends as alpha-smooth muscle-actin, a marker of MF differentiation. In addition, the gene expression of potassium voltage-gated channel, Shal-related family and member 2 (KCND2) was up-regulated. Furthermore, it was found that endothelin 1 (EDN1), some complement components, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) might be involved in MF differentiation. Using microarrary technique, we confirmed some genes that have been identified by other techniques were implicated in MF differentiation and observed new genes involved in this process. Our results suggest that gene expression profiling study is helpful in identifying genes and pathways potentially involved in cell differentiation.  (+info)

Porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma induces transdifferentiation of myocytes into adipocytes. (3/531)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma) is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipogenic genes during adipogenesis. The activity of rodent PPARgamma is regulated by phosphorylation of serine 112. The current experiment was designed to study the ability of porcine PPARgamma to stimulate transdifferentiation of myoblasts to adipocytes by overexpressing wild-type PPARgamma or mutated PPARgamma (serine 112 was mutated to alanine) in mouse myoblast cells. The expression of adipogenic marker genes (adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase) in cells stably expressing mutated porcine PPARgamma was greater than in cells with wild-type PPARgamma, indicating that the mutated PPARgamma has greater adipogenic capability than the wild-type PPARgamma. Under treatment with a ligand, both wild-type and mutant porcine PPARgamma-expressing C2C12 myoblasts differentiated into adipocytes in 10 d. The expression of myogenic marker genes (myogenin, myogenic regulatory factor-4) was suppressed in cells transfected with the mutated PPARgamma or wild-type PPARgamma. Moreover, wild-type and mutant PPARgamma were able to inhibit myogenesis without addition of a ligand. Our results suggest that porcine wild-type PPARgamma and mutated PPARgamma can both convert myoblast cells into adipocytes, and also that the ability to transdifferentiate was greater in cells containing the mutated PPARgamma than in cells containing the wild-type PPARgamma. Therefore, the existence of serine 112 in PPARgamma may have a role in regulating adipocyte differentiation.  (+info)

A functional role of Cdx2 in beta-catenin signaling during transdifferentiation in endometrial carcinomas. (4/531)

Nuclear beta-catenin is required for changes in morphology from glandular to morular phenotypes of endometrial carcinoma (Em Ca) cells, with activation of p14(ARF)/p53/p21(Waf1) and alteration of p16(INK4A)/pRb pathways. Having demonstrated previously that the homeodomain transcription factor Cdx2 increases markedly during intestinal epithelial cell differentiation, we have examined its effects in beta-catenin signaling during transdifferentiation of Em Ca cells. In clinical cases, Cdx2 immunoreactivity, along with increased mRNA signals, was found to overlap with nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and p21(Waf1) in morules, demonstrating an inverse correlation with cell proliferation. In cell lines, over-expression of active form beta-catenin resulted in a significant increase in endogenous Cdx2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the Cdx2 promoter was activated by T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) -independent activated beta-catenin, as well as Cdx2 itself, through the region from -39 to +9 bp relative to transcription start site. Cells over-expressing exogenous Cdx2 showed high levels of p21(Waf1) expression due to stabilization of the mRNA status, resulting in significant decrease in the proliferation rate, in contrast to the lack of apparent changes in morphology. Moreover, transfected Cdx2 could inhibit beta-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcriptional activation of target genes, including p14(ARF) and cyclin D1, probably through indirect mechanisms. These data suggest that over-expression of Cdx2 mediated by nuclear beta-catenin and Cdx2 itself can cause an inhibition of Em Ca cell proliferation through up-regulation of p21(Waf1) expression, modulating beta-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcription. We therefore conclude that an association between Cdx2 and beta-catenin signaling may participate in induction of transdifferentiation of Em Ca cells.  (+info)

VEGF-R blockade causes endothelial cell apoptosis, expansion of surviving CD34+ precursor cells and transdifferentiation to smooth muscle-like and neuronal-like cells. (5/531)

Severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by complex precapillary arteriolar lesions, which contain phenotypically altered smooth muscle (SM) and endothelial cells (EC). We have demonstrated that VEGF receptor blockade by SU5416 {3-[(2,4-dimethylpyrrol-5-yl)methylidenyl]-indolin 2-one} in combination with chronic hypoxia causes severe angioproliferative PH associated with arterial occlusion in rats. We postulate that endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation can take place in the occlusive lesions and that endothelium-derived mesenchymal cells can further differentiate toward a SM phenotype. To examine this hypothesis, we incubated human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVEC) with SU5416 and analyzed these cells utilizing quantitative-PCR, immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry analysis. In vitro studies in HPMVEC demonstrated that SU5416 suppressed PGI2S gene expression while potently inducing COX-2, VEGF, and TGF-beta1 expression; and caused transdifferentiation of mature vascular endothelial cells (defined by Dil-ac-LDL, Lectin and Factor VIII) to SM-like (as defined by expression of alpha-SM actin) "transitional" cells, coexpressing both endothelial and SM markers. SU5416 expanded the number of CD34 and/or c-kit positive cells and caused transdifferentiation of CD34 positive cells but not negative cells. In conclusion, our data show that SU5416 generated a selection pressure that killed some EC and expanded progenitor-like cells to transdifferentiate to SM-like and neuronal-like cells.  (+info)

Transdifferentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into epithelial-like cells. (6/531)

Bone marrow-derived stem cells have the potential to transdifferentiate into unexpected peripheral cells. We hypothesize that circulating bone marrow-derived stem cells might have the capacity to transdifferentiate into epithelial-like cells and release matrix metalloproteinase-1-modulating factors such as 14-3-3varsigma for dermal fibroblasts. We have characterized a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that develops an epithelial-like profile. Our findings show that these cells develop epithelial-like morphology and express 14-3-3varsigma and keratin-5, -8 as early as day 7 and day 21, respectively. When compared with control, conditioned media collected from PBMCs in advanced epithelial-like differentiation (cultures on days 28, 35, and 42) increased the matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts (P +info)

Mediator subunit MED28 (Magicin) is a repressor of smooth muscle cell differentiation. (7/531)

Magicin, a protein that we isolated earlier as an interactor of the neurofibromatosis 2 protein merlin, was independently identified as MED28, a subunit of the mammalian Mediator complex. Mediator complex is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional cofactor, which plays an essential role in positive and negative gene regulation. Distinct Mediator subunit composition is thought to contribute to gene regulation specificity based on the interaction of specific subunits with subsets of transcription factors. Here we report that down-regulation of Med28 expression in NIH3T3 cells results in a significant induction of several genes associated with smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of MED28 represses expression of SMC genes, in concordance with our knockdown data. More importantly, multipotent mesenchymal-derived murine precursors can transdifferentiate into SMCs when Med28 is down-regulated. Our data also show that Med28 functions as a negative regulator of SMC differentiation in concert with other Mediator subunits including Med6, Med8, and Med18 within the Mediator head module. Our results provide strong evidence that MED28 may function as a scaffolding protein by maintaining the stability of a submodule within the head module and that components of this submodule act together in a gene regulatory program to suppress SMC differentiation. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time that the mammalian Mediator subunit MED28 functions as a repressor of SMC differentiation, which could have implications for disorders associated with abnormalities in SMC growth and differentiation, including atherosclerosis, asthma, hypertension, and smooth muscle tumors.  (+info)

Effects of KGF on alveolar epithelial cell transdifferentiation are mediated by JNK signaling. (8/531)

Rat alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in primary culture transdifferentiate from a type II (AT2) toward a type I (AT1) cell-like phenotype, a process that can be both prevented and reversed by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Microarray analysis revealed that these effects of KGF are associated with up-regulation of key molecules in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To further explore the role of three key MAPK (i.e., extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK] 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and p38) in mediating effects of KGF on AEC phenotype, primary rat AEC cultivated in minimal defined serum-free medium (MDSF) were treated with KGF (10 ng/ml) from Day 4 for intervals up to 48 hours. Exposure to KGF activated all three MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, and p38. Inhibition of JNK, but not of ERK1/2 or p38, abrogated the ability of KGF to maintain the AT2 cell phenotype, as evidenced by loss of expression of lamellar membrane protein (p180) and increased reactivity with the AT1 cell-specific monoclonal antibody VIIIB2 by Day 6 in culture. Overexpression of JNKK2, upstream kinase of JNK, increased activation of endogenous c-Jun in association with increased expression of p180 and abrogation of AQP5, suggesting that activation of c-Jun promotes retention of the AT2 cell phenotype. These results indicate that retention of the AT2 cell phenotype by KGF involves c-Jun and suggest that activation of c-Jun kinase may be an important determinant of maintenance of AT2 cell phenotype.  (+info)