Carisoprodol: an unrecognized drug of abuse.
During a 6-month monitoring period, carisoprodol was detected in the urine specimens of 19 patients for whom drug screening had been ordered for purposes of patient care. The clinical history suggested that in 7 cases the drug was abused or implicated in a suicide attempt or gesture. In another 7 cases, the drug was used primarily for medical purposes, and in 5 cases the reason for use could not be determined. One patient ingested homemade tablets that were found to contain carisoprodol. In an additional case, the drug was detected in breast milk. Physical findings, clinical history, and treatment are described, and the profile of a typical carisoprodol user is discussed. It seems that carisoprodol has become an unrecognized drug of abuse, at least in our community. This drug and its metabolite, meprobamate, should be included in comprehensive drug screening. (+info)
Somatic dysfunction during carisoprodol cessation: evidence for a carisoprodol withdrawal syndrome.
Carisoprodol is a commonly used skeletal muscle relaxant with potential for abuse because of its active metabolite, meprobamate, and several reports have suggested that patients abruptly stopping intake of carisoprodol may have a withdrawal syndrome. The authors studied changes in the occurrence of somatic dysfunctions in five patients during an 8-day period following discontinuation from large doses of carisoprodol. Results showed that the number of somatic dysfunctions changed significantly during the withdrawal period. Each patient had an increase in the number of somatic dysfunctions during the first 3 days after cessation of carisoprodol with return to at or near baseline by the eighth day. This was reflected statistically in a significant-within-subjects effect for time. Results of supplemental analyses revealed a significant component of the effect and a trend for the quadratic component to be significant. Increases in the number of somatic dysfunctions during carisoprodol discontinuation support the existence of a carisoprodol withdrawal syndrome. (+info)
Simultaneous determination of carisoprodol and acetaminophen in an attempted suicide by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization.
An adult female ingested a considerable quantity of carisoprodol/acetaminophen tablets, which are not commercially available in Japan, in an attempt to commit suicide. Generally, because of lack of the appreciable ultraviolet absorbance or fluorescence, carisoprodol and its major metabolite meprobamate are determined by gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Complicated derivatization is, however, necessary to that methodology. Thus, we investigated the derivatization-free, highly sensitive, and simultaneous determination of carisoprodol, meprobamate, and acetaminophen by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with positive electrospray ionization. A semi-micro ODS column was used. Ammonium acetate solution (10mM) and acetonitrile were used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 150 microL/min using gradient elution. MS parameters were as follows: capillary voltage, 3.5 kV; cone voltage, +30 V; extractor voltage, 5 kV; and ion source temperature, 100 degrees C. Urine samples pretreated by Oasis HLB cartridge, or plasma samples deproteinized by adding ice-cold acetonitrile were analyzed by LC-MS. The limits of quantitation for each compound were as follows: 0.50 ng/mL for carisoprodol; 10 ng/mL for acetaminophen; and 1.0 ng/mL for meprobamate. In the present case, carisoprodol and acetaminophen were the only drugs detected. Meprobamate was also found as the metabolite of carisoprodol in both urine and plasma. The plasma levels of carisoprodol, acetaminophen, and meprobamate on arrival were 29.5, 245, and 46.7 microg/mL, respectively. These levels were extremely high compared with therapeutic plasma concentrations. Despite the high plasma concentrations of these drugs, which correspond to fatal levels, the patient survived. (+info)
Direct and rapid determination of baclofen (Lioresal) and carisoprodol (Soma) in bovine serum by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Baclofen (Lioresal), a lipophilic analogue of c-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and carisoprodol (Soma), a central nervous system depressant with an unknown mechanism of pharmacologic action, are categorized as muscle relaxants. Baclofen is used clinically in the management of spasticity and its sequelae secondary to severe chronic disorders such as multiple sclerosis and other types of spinal cord lesions. Carisoprodol is used for discomfort associated with acute and painful musculoskeletal conditions. Intoxication from these drugs occurs in both humans and animals necessitating a need for their detection in plasma/serum, tissue, and gastrointestinal contents samples. A sensitive and specific analytical method for detection and quantitation of these compounds using liquid chromatography with positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry was developed. A rapid extraction procedure for both analytes from fortified bovine sera is described. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C(18) reverse-phase column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.25% acetic acid. The effluent was directed to the mass spectrometer with fragmentation information for baclofen and carisoprodol obtained in a scan monitoring mode. Linear standard curves for baclofen and carisoprodol were constructed based on at least two corresponding extracted ions over a concentration range of 0.1-50 micro g/mL. The analysis of fortified sera samples demonstrates good accuracy and precision for the method with a limit of detection of 0.5 micro g/mL for carisoprodol (n = 3) and 1 micro g/mL for baclofen (n = 4) and a limit of quantitation of 2 micro g/mL for both compounds. Recoveries at the limit of quantitation were between 75 and 95% for both analytes, with a 4.8-9.3% range in standard deviation. (+info)
Identifying controlled substance patterns of utilization requiring evaluation using administrative claims data.
OBJECTIVES: To develop a systems approach to identify, for further evaluation, patients with potential controlled substance misuse or mismanagement using software queries applied to administrative health claims data. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective validation of the system using insurance claims. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from administrative health claims databases representing nearly 7 million individuals younger than 65 years were used by multidisciplinary expert panels to develop and validate controlled substance patterns of utilization requiring evaluation (CS-PURE) criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-four CS-PURE queries were developed in SAS and applied to administrative claims records to identify patients with potential controlled substance misuse or mismanagement. From these, we identified 10 CS-PURE with the highest expert agreement that intervention was warranted. Expert panel agree, ment that CS-PURE correctly identified cases ranged from 48% to 100%, with at least 50% agreement in 9 of 10 CS-PURE. The prevalence rates for CS-PURE ranged from 0.001% to 0.252%. This translates to identifying between 5 and 1116 patients for individual CS-PURE in a 500 000-member health plan. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and empirically validated a group of queries using CS-PURE to identify patients with potential controlled substance misuse or mismanagement that would warrant further evaluation by the treating physician, a quality assurance function, or the medical director. Claims-based CS-PURE identification is generalizable to most health insurers with access to medical and pharmaceutical claims records. Although CS-PURE are not direct measures of misuse, they can direct attention to potential problems to determine if intervention is needed. (+info)
Carisoprodol use and abuse in Norway: a pharmacoepidemiological study.
AIM: Carisoprodol was developed to create a drug with less potential for abuse than meprobamate. However, case reports have established carisoprodol as a drug of abuse. This paper explores the extent of potential abuse of this drug in Norway. METHODS: The Norwegian Prescription Database contains information on prescription drugs dispensed to individuals in Norway. Patients can be followed over time. High levels of carisoprodol use could indicate use for pleasurable effects or development of tolerance. Concomitant use of other potential drugs of abuse was also studied. We studied drug-seeking behaviour by looking at patients who received carisoprodol from many different pharmacies and doctors or from high-prescribing doctors. Carisoprodol was compared with a series of other medicinal drugs with or without known potential for abuse. RESULTS: Some 53,889 Norwegian women (2.4%) and 29,824 men (1.3%) > or =18 years old received carisoprodol at least once in 2004. Prescribing of carisoprodol was skewed. As many as 32% of the patients received more than 15 defined daily doses (DDDs) of carisoprodol and >11,000 patients (15%) received > or =75 DDDs in 2004. High users of carisoprodol also received more benzodiazepines and opioids. Few patients used three or more doctors for prescriptions, but carisoprodol-abusing patients more often received their prescription from high-prescribing doctors. CONCLUSIONS: Carisoprodol was widely used and the skewedness in use indicated that it is a potential drug of abuse. A large number of patients used more carisoprodol than recommended in the guidelines. The high level of use and abuse of carisoprodol should be of concern in Norway. (+info)
Carisoprodol abuse in Texas, 1998-2003.
INTRODUCTION: Texas poison centers identified carisoprodol as a skeletal muscle relaxant that is subject to abuse, and this investigation explores the abuse reported by Texas poison centers. METHODS: This study used data from six Texas poison centers to describe the epidemiology of carisoprodol abuse and drug identification (ID) calls from 1998 to 2003. RESULTS: Drug ID and abuse calls were 217% higher in 2003 than in 1998. Although eastern and central Texas contains 43% of the state's population, this region reported 77% of all drug ID calls and 64% of abuse calls. For male patients, 51% of the calls were abuse calls and 37% were other human carisoprodol exposure calls. Patients from 13 to 19 years of age accounted for 17% of abuse calls and 9% of other human exposure calls. Among those human exposure calls with a known medical outcome, a higher percentage of abuse calls involved minor effects while a greater proportion of other human exposure calls involved outcomes that ranged from moderate effects to death. CONCLUSIONS: Carisoprodol abuse is increasing in Texas and is substantially more common in the eastern part of the state. Carisoprodol abuse is much more likely, than other types of adverse carisoprodol exposures, to involve males and adolescents; and it less likely to involve adverse medical outcomes. (+info)
Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients: licit and illicit drug patterns.
Chronic pain patients are frequently maintained on one or more powerful opioid medications in combination with other psychoactive medications. Urine tests provide objective information regarding patient compliance status. Little information is available on testing this unique population. The goal of this study was to characterize drug disposition patterns in urine specimens collected from a large population of pain patients. Confirmation data for 10,922 positive specimens were collated into 11 drug Classes. The number of drug/metabolites tested (#) and number of confirmed positive specimens were as follows: amphetamines (7), 160; barbiturates (5), 308; benzodiazepines (6), 2397; cannabinoids (1), 967; carisoprodol (2), 611; cocaine (1), 310; fentanyl (1), 458; meperidine (2), 58; methadone (2), 1209; opiates (7), 8996; and propoxyphene (2), 385. Subdivision into 19 distinct drug Groups allowed characterization of drug use patterns. Of the 10,922 positive specimens, 15,859 results were reported as positive in various drug Classes, and 27,197 drug/metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The frequency of illicit drug use (cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy) was 10.8%. Being the first study of this type, these data present a large array of information on licit and illicit drug use, drug detection frequencies, drug/metabolite patterns, and multi-drug use combinations in pain patients. (+info)