Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy.
A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households had 44% fewer diarrhoea episodes than control households (P = 0.002). Infants < 1 year old (P = 0.05) and children 5-14 years old (P = 0.01) in intervention households had significantly less diarrhoea than control children. Campylobacter was less commonly isolated from intervention than control patients (P = 0.02). Stored water in intervention households was less contaminated with Escherichia coli than stored water in control households (P < 0.0001). Intervention households exhibited less E. coli contamination of stored water and less diarrhoea than control households. This promising new strategy may have broad applicability for waterborne disease prevention. (+info)
The census-based, impact-oriented approach: its effectiveness in promoting child health in Bolivia.
This paper describes the effectiveness for child health of a primary health care approach developed in Bolivia by Andean Rural Health Care and its colleagues, the census-based, impact-oriented (CBIO) approach. Here, we describe selected achievements, including child survival service coverage, mortality impact, and the level of resources required to attain these results. As a result of first identifying the entire programme population through visits at least biannually to all homes and then targeting selected high-impact services to those at highest risk of death, the mortality levels of children under five years of age in the established programme areas was one-third to one-half of mortality levels in comparison areas. Card-documented coverage for the complete series of all the standard six childhood immunizations among children 12-23 months of age was 78%, and card-documented coverage for three nutritional monitorings during the previous 12 months among the same group of children was 80%. Coverage rates in comparison areas for similar services was less than 21%. The local annual recurring cost of this approach was US $8.57 for each person (of all ages) in the programme population. This cost includes the provision of primary care services for all age groups as well as targeted child survival services. This cost is well within the affordable range for many, if not most, developing countries. Manpower costs for field staff in Bolivia are relatively high, so in countries with lower salary scales, the overall recurring cost could be substantially less. An Expert Review Panel reviewed the CBIO approach and found it to be worthy of replication, particularly if stronger community involvement and greater reliance on volunteer or minimally paid staff could be attained. The results of this approach are sufficiently promising to merit implementation and evaluation in other sites, including sites beyond Bolivia. (+info)
The Northern Bolivian Altiplano: a region highly endemic for human fascioliasis.
The worldwide importance of human infection by Fasciola hepatica has been recognized in recent years. The endemic region between Lake Titicaca and the valley of La Paz, Bolivia, at 3800-4100 m altitude, presents the highest prevalences and intensities recorded. Large geographical studies involving Lymnaea truncatula snails (malacological, physico-chemical, and botanic studies of 59, 28 and 30 water bodies, respectively, inhabited by lymnaeids; environmental mean temperature studies covering a 40-year period), livestock (5491 cattle) and human coprological surveys (2723 subjects, 2521 of whom were school children) were conducted during 1991-97 to establish the boundaries and distributional characteristics of this endemic Northern Altiplano region. The endemic area covers part of the Los Andes, Ingavi, Omasuyos and Murillo provinces of the La Paz Department. The human endemic zone is stable, isolated and apparently fixed in its present outline, the boundaries being marked by geographical, climatic and soil-water chemical characteristics. The parasite distribution is irregular in the endemic area, the transmission foci being patchily distributed and linked to the presence of appropriate water bodies. Prevalences in school children are related to snail population distribution and extent. Altiplanic lymnaeids mainly inhabit permanent water bodies, which enables parasite transmission during the whole year. A confluence of several factors mitigates the negative effects of the high altitude. (+info)
Ecogenetics of Triatoma sordida and Triatoma guasayana (Hemiptera: reduviidae) in the Bolivian chaco.
Triatoma guasayana and two putative cryptic species pertaining to T. sordida complex (named groups 1 and 2) occur in sympatry in the Bolivian Chaco. Using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis, our work assesses their population distribution and dispersal capacity in domestic, peridomestic, and silvatic environments. Our collections by light trap in the silvatic environment indicated a predominance of T. guasayana and T. sordida group 2 and a lesser abundance of T. sordida group 1 ( pound 10% of the total of captures). Their similar distribution in two silvatic areas 80 km apart supports the hypothesis of their homogeneous dispersal through the Bolivian Chaco. The distribution of T. guasayana and T. sordida groups 1 and 2 was similar between silvatic environment and peridomestic ecotopes where 25% of positive places was occupied by two or three species. Bromeliads were confirmed as favorable shelter for T. guasayana but were free of T. sordida. T. sordida group 1 and to a lesser extent T. guasayana would be more invasive vectors for houses than T. sordida group 2. The spatial partition in the three species sampled in two distant sites suggested a reduced dispersive capacity. (+info)
Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia.
INTRODUCTION: A descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of Cochabamba, Bolivia: Avaroa/Primer de Mayo (population:3,000), where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. METHODS: The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used for IgG and IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males) selected by systematic sampling. Concerning each subject age, gender, birthplace, occupation, duration of residence and building materials used in their houses were recorded. Vectors were captured both in domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: Seropositive, 12.5% (16/128): females, 15.1% (11/73); males, 9.1% (5/55). Average time of residence: 6.1 years for the whole population sample and 7.4 years for the seropositive subjects. Most houses had adobe walls (76. 7%, n= 30), galvanized iron rooves (86.7%) and earthen floors (53. 4%) 80% of the walls had crevices. One hundred forty seven specimens of Triatoma infestans were captured, of which 104 (70.7%) were domestic, and 1 peridomestic Triatoma sordida. Precipitin host identification: birds, 67.5%; humans, 27.8%; rodents, 11.9%; dogs, 8. 7%; cats, 1.6%. House infestation and density indices were 53.3 and 493.0 respectively. We found 21 (14.3%) specimens of T. infestans infected with trypanosomes, 18 (85.7%) of which in domestic environments. DISCUSSION: The elements for the vector transmission of Chagas disease are present in Avaroa/Primer de Mayo and the ancient custom of keeping guinea pigs indoors adds to the risk of human infection. In neighboring Cochabamba, due to substandard quality control, contaminated blood transfusions are not infrequent, which further aggravates the spread of Chagas disease. Prompt action to check the transmission of this infection, involving additionally the congenital and transfusional modes of acquisition, is required. (+info)
Early, intermediate, and late acute stages in Chagas' disease: a study combining anti-galactose IgG, specific serodiagnosis, and polymerase chain reaction analysis.
The acute phase of Chagas' disease was classified as early, intermediate, and late based on the levels of anti-Galalpha, 3Gal IgG (Gal) and specific IgM (M) and IgG (G) anti-T. cruzi reactivity. While the early phase was M+G-Gal-, the intermediate phase was M+G-Gal+, M+G+Gal-, or M+G+Gal+, and the late phase was M-G+Gal+. This sequence of stages was consistent with our previous studies on acute-phase proteins. Analysis by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of parasite DNA in 65 blood samples of children living in Cochabamba, Bolivia showed a significant correlation (90.8%) between ELISA and PCR positivity. A lower correlation was observed between indirect hemagglutination, PCR (58%), and ELISA. Electrocardiographic analysis of 43 children studied by the PCR did not show any alteration typical of acute chagasic myocarditis. The PCR positivity was observed in eight samples where only Gal was increased, suggesting a very early T. cruzi infection, when specific antibodies were not yet present. By associating anti-Gal IgG with specific serology, early T. cruzi infection can be detected with greater precision. We suggest the use of anti-Gal antibody reactivity as an aid for the detection of recent T. cruzi infections, at least in endemic areas where diseases caused by other trypanosomatids do not overlap. (+info)
Epidemiology of hepatitis B, C, E, and G virus infections and molecular analysis of hepatitis G virus isolates in Bolivia.
Prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis G virus (HGV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was investigated among 574 healthy blood donors in Bolivia. HCV RNA and HGV RNA in the serum were identified by a nested reverse transcription-PCR using primers derived from the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). We also tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and for the antibody to HEV. The results revealed that HGV RNA was present in 84 of 574 (14.6%) tested blood donors, whereas HBsAg was detected in only 2 (0.3%) donors, and no individuals positive for HCV RNA were found. Anti-HEV immunoglobulin G (IgG) was detected in 93 (16.2%) individuals and anti-HEV IgM was found in 10 (1.7%) individuals among the same population. Phylogenetic analysis of 44 HGV isolates in the 5' UTR showed that 27 (61%) isolates were genotype 3 (Asian type) and the remaining 17 (39%) isolates were genotype 2 (United States and European type). Moreover, we obtained a full-length nucleotide sequence of the HGV genome (designated HGV-BL230) recovered from a Bolivian blood donor. The BL230 was composed of 9,227 nucleotides and had a single open reading frame, encoding 2,842 amino acid residues. Interestingly, the BL230 belonged to genotype 2 of HGV at the level of a full-length sequence, although this was classified as genotype 3 by a phylogenetic analysis based on the 5' UTR sequence. The BL230 differed from previously reported HGV/hepatitis GB virus type C isolates by 12 to 13% of the nucleotide sequence and 4% of the amino acid sequence. Our data indicate a high prevalence of HGV in native Bolivians, and the major genotype of HGV was type 3. (+info)
Domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian villages.
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis is an important public health problem worldwide. A study was undertaken to examine the association between exposure to air pollution from domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian highland villages: a village in which cooking is done exclusively indoors and a village in which cooking is done primarily outdoors. Apart from this difference, the villages were virtually identical in terms of socioeconomic status, climate, altitude, access to health care, and other potential confounders. METHODS: Pollution exposure was assessed by combining information on concentrations of particulate matter of <10 microm diameter (PM(10)) in 12 randomly selected households in each village in all potential microenvironments of exposure with time allocation information. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was assessed using the British Medical Research Council's questionnaire on individuals >20 years of age in both villages (n = 241). RESULTS: Daily pollution exposure was significantly higher in the indoor cooking village (range for adults: 9840-15 120 microg-h/m(3)) than in the outdoor cooking village (range for adults: 5520-6240 microg-h/m(3)) for both seasons and for men and women. The overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 22% and 13% for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. Logistic regression analysis, which excluded the few smokers present in the population, showed a 60% reduced risk of chronic bronchitis in the outdoor cooking village compared with the indoor cooking village (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8; p = 0.0102) after adjusting for age and sex. Individuals aged >40 years were 4.3 times more likely to have chronic bronchitis than the younger age group (OR = 4.3; 95% CI 2.0 to 9.3; p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest an association between chronic bronchitis and exposure to domestic biomass fuel combustion, but further large scale studies from other areas of the developing world are needed to confirm the association. Results from this and other studies will assist the development of culturally acceptable and feasible alternatives to the high exposure cooking stoves currently being used by most people worldwide. (+info)