Effect of alcohol abstinence on blood pressure: assessment by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.
Several studies have shown that cessation of alcohol drinking reduces blood pressure (BP). However, attempts to reproduce these findings by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) have shown inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 month of proven abstinence from alcohol on the 24-hour BP profile in heavy alcohol drinkers. Forty-two men who were heavy drinkers (>100 g of pure ethanol per day) were consecutively admitted to a general ward for voluntary alcohol detoxification. On the day of admission, they received a total dose of 2 g/kg of ethanol diluted in orange juice in 5 divided doses, and a 24-hour ABPM was performed. A new 24-hour BP monitoring in the same environmental conditions was performed after 1 month of proven alcohol abstinence while the subjects were receiving the same amount of fluid but without the addition of alcohol. After 1 month of proven alcohol abstinence, BP and heart rate (HR) significantly decreased. The reduction was 7.2 mm Hg for 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) (95% CI, 4.5 to 9.9), 6.6 mm Hg for 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP) (95% CI, 4.2 to 9.0), and 7.9 bpm for HR (95% CI, 5.1 to 10.7). The proportion of alcoholic patients considered hypertensive on the basis of 24-hour BP criteria (daytime SBP >/=135 mm Hg or daytime DBP >/=85 mm Hg) fell from 42% during alcohol drinking to 12% after 1 month of complete abstinence. Abstinence did not modify either the long-term BP variability, assessed by SD of 24-hour BP, or its circadian profile. We conclude that abstinence in heavy alcohol drinkers significantly reduces BP assessed by 24-hour ABPM and that this reduction is clinically relevant. These results show that heavy alcohol consumption has an important effect on BP, and thus cessation of alcohol consumption must be recommended as a priority for hypertensive alcohol drinkers. (+info)
Alteration of circadian time structure of blood pressure caused by night shift schedule.
The effects of night shift schedules on circadian time structure of blood pressure were studied in seven healthy young subjects by continuous monitoring of blood pressure every 30 min for 72 h. In the control experiment, subjects were instructed to sleep at regular times with the light off at 00.00 h and the light on at 07.00 h. In the shift experiment, they were instructed to go to bed at 06.00 h and wake up at 11.00 h. The circadian rhythm of blood pressure rapidly phase delayed by 3.5 h in the second night shift day as a group phenomenon. Individual differences in changes in power spectral patterns of blood pressure were found in the night shift schedule. Ultradian rhythmicity of blood pressure was more pronounced in three subjects, whereas the circadian rhythmicity was maintained in four subjects. These findings held when the adaptation to shift work was taken into account. (+info)
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and progression in patients with IgA nephropathy.
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a recognized marker of poor prognosis in IgA nephropathy. METHODS: The present study investigated the prevalence of white-coat hypertension, the diurnal rhythm of blood pressure (BP), the effectiveness of antihypertensive drug therapy, and the effect of the above on the progression of the kidney disease in IgA nephropathy. One hundred twenty-six IgA nephropathy patients were selected consecutively for 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Fifty-five patients were normotensive and 71 were treated hypertensives. Their antihypertensive drugs were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) alone or in combination with calcium-channel blockers (CCB). RESULTS: The mean night-time BP of normotensives (108+/-9/67+/-6 mmHg) was significantly lower than their day-time BP (125+/-8/82+/-7 mmHg, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean day-time and night-time BP in hypertensive patients (125+/-9/82+/-7 mmHg vs 128+/-10/85+/-9 mmHg). The circadian variation of BP was preserved ('dippers') in 82% of the normotensive and 7% of the hypertensive patients (P<0.001). There were 10 'white-coat hypertensives' among the patients classified as normotensives with ABPM (mean office blood pressure 149+/-7/96+/-8 mmHg, 24-h blood pressure 127+/-6/83+/-5 mmHg, P<0.05) and 14 among treated hypertensives (mean office BP 152+/-8/98+/-6 mmHg, 24-h BP 130+/-4/85+/-8 mmHg, P<0.05). There was no difference in mean day-time BP among normotensive and treated hypertensive patients (125+/-8/81+/-5 mmHg vs 128+/-10/85+/-9 mmHg). Hypertensives had significantly higher night-time BP (125+/-9/85+/-9 mmHg) than normotensives (108+/-9/67+/-6 mmHg, P<0.001). There was no difference in serum creatinine levels among the different groups at the time of the ABPM. However, thirty-six+/-4.1 months after the ABPM, hypertensive patients (n=52) had higher serum creatinine levels (124+/-32 micromol/l) than at the time of the ABPM (101+/-28 micromol/l). The serum creatinine of normotensive patients (n=43) did not change during the follow-up period. 'Non-dipper' normotensives (n=10) had significantly higher serum creatinine levels at the end of the follow-up period than at its beginning (106+/-17 micromol/l vs 89+/-18 micromol/l, P<0.05). There was no increase in serum creatinine of 'dipper' normotensives. The mean serum creatinine of 'white-coat hypertensives' was significantly higher at the end of the study period than at its beginning. CONCLUSIONS: There is no diurnal blood pressure variation in most of the hypertensive IgA nephropathy patients. ACEI and CCB treatment have better effect on day-time than night-time hypertension. The lack of the circadian rhythm and 'white-coat hypertension' seems to accelerate the progression of IgA nephropathy. (+info)
Effectiveness of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D supplementation on blood pressure reduction in a pseudohypoparathyroidism patient with high renin activity.
A 42-year-old man had biochemical and somatic abnormalities compatible with pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PsHP) and also had high plasma renin activity (PRA). After 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) supplementation the systolic/diastolic blood pressure, assessed by 24-hour non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, was reduced from 145/96 mm Hg to 128/85 mm Hg with normalization of the serum calcium level and its related hormones, as well as decreased PRA. Calcitriol supplementation successfully reduced the blood pressure in this patient with PsHP and a high PRA, suggesting that calcium-related hormones and/or the renin-angiotensin system were involved in lowering the blood pressure. (+info)
Effects of coffee on ambulatory blood pressure in older men and women: A randomized controlled trial.
This study assessed the effects of regular coffee drinking on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in normotensive and hypertensive older men and women. Twenty-two normotensive and 26 hypertensive, nonsmoking men and women, with a mean age of 72.1 years (range, 54 to 89 years), took part in the study. After 2 weeks of a caffeine-free diet, subjects were randomized to continue with the caffeine-free diet and abstain from caffeine-containing drinks or drink instant coffee (5 cups per day, equivalent to 300 mg caffeine per day) in addition to the caffeine-free diet for a further 2 weeks. Change in systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) determined by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring showed significant interactions between coffee drinking and hypertension status. In the hypertensive group, rise in mean 24-hour SBP was greater by 4.8 (SEM, 1.3) mm Hg (P=0.031) and increase in mean 24-hour DBP was higher by 3.0 (1.0) mm Hg (P=0.010) in coffee drinkers than in abstainers. There were no significant differences between abstainers and coffee drinkers in the normotensive group for 24-hour, daytime, or nighttime SBP or DBP. In older men and women with treated or untreated hypertension, ABP increased in coffee drinkers and decreased in abstainers. Restriction of coffee intake may be beneficial in older hypertensive individuals. (+info)
Effects of nisoldipine and lisinopril on left ventricular mass and function in diabetic nephropathy.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of the calcium channel blocker, nisoldipine, and the ACE inhibitor, lisinopril, on left ventricular mass (LVM) and systolic function in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: M-mode echocardiography was performed in 50 hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy enrolled in a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, parallel study of antihypertensive treatment with nisoldipine CC (20-40 mg/day) or lisinopril (10-20 mg/day). Ambulatory 24-h blood pressure was measured with the Takeda TM 2420 device (A & D, Tokyo, Japan) every 3 months. Three patients dropped out and seven patients were excluded due to technical difficulties. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was reduced from 83 to 80 mmHg in the nisoldipine group (P = 0.06) and from 85 to 80 mmHg in the lisinopril group (P = 0.02). The decline in systolic blood pressure was not significant with any of the two treatments, and no difference in reduction of blood pressure was seen between groups. LVM corrected for body surface area (LVMI) was comparable between groups at baseline and increased from 96 +/- 5 to 107 +/- 6 g/m2 (mean +/- SEM; P = 0.007) in the nisoldipine group and from 95 +/- 4 to 103 +/- 5 g/m2 (P = 0.03) in the lisinopril group. The mean difference between the change in LVMI in the two groups was 2.9 (95% CI 6.8 to 12.7) g/m2. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy rose from 18 (95% CI 6-30) to 30% (16-44) during the study period. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after 1 year of treatment, LVMI increased with higher systolic blood pressure level and declining glomerular filtration rate (R2 = 0.25). Fractional shortening was within normal range at baseline, 42 +/- 1 vs. 41 +/- 1% with nisoldipine and lisinopril, respectively, and did not change during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive treatment with nisoldipine or lisinopril to bring diastolic blood pressure level within the normal target range does not hinder a rise in LVMI in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. (+info)
G-Protein beta3 subunit C825T variant and ambulatory blood pressure in essential hypertension.
Recent studies have identified a novel polymorphism (C825T) of the gene encoding the beta3 subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gbeta3) associated with enhanced activation of G proteins, which appears to be more common in hypertensive patients. In the present study we examine the relationship between this genetic variant and hypertension in 479 white patients with established essential hypertension recruited from the hypertension clinic of the Universitatsklinikum Benjamin Franklin in Berlin, Germany, and 1000 normotensive gender- and age-matched controls. All patients were screened for the presence of secondary hypertension and were further characterized by ambulatory blood pressure measurements performed in 295 treated and 184 untreated patients. Genotype distribution for the Gbeta3-C825T genotype in patients (CC=204, CT=224, TT=51) was significantly different from that in controls (CC=514, CT=412, TT=74; chi2=11.5, P<0.01), and the T allele was associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.2) versus non-T carriers for the presence of hypertension. However, in both the whole group and the untreated subgroup, blood pressure levels between the genotypic groups were virtually identical. Furthermore, age of onset of hypertension and number of antihypertensive medications (in treated patients) were similar between the genotypic groups. Thus, while our data confirm the association between the Gbeta3-C825T variant and essential hypertension, they do not support the hypothesis that this marker is associated with more severe blood pressure in patients with already established hypertension. (+info)
Ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular mass in normotensive patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Higher left ventricular mass (LVM) has been found in early stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The mechanisms involved in the increase of LVM are unknown. To investigate whether LVM in ADPKD may be influenced by abnormal diurnal BP variations, the 24-h ambulatory BP profile was analyzed in a group of young normotensive ADPKD patients. Ambulatory BP monitoring and two-dimensional echocardiography were performed in 26 young normotensive ADPKD with normal renal function and in 26 healthy control subjects. LVM index was higher in ADPKD patients than in controls (90.8+/-19.6 g/m2 versus 73.9+/-16.1 g/m2, P = 0.001). Average 24-h and daytime systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar in both groups. Nighttime diastolic and mean BP, but not systolic BP, were greater in ADPKD patients. The average and percent nocturnal decrease of systolic BP was lower in ADPKD patients than in control subjects (10.0 mm Hg [-3 to 24] versus 15.5 mm Hg [-4 to 31], P = 0.009, and 9.0% [-2 to 22] versus 14.2% [-2 to 25], P = 0.016, respectively). On the basis of their profile BP patterns, 54% of ADPKD subjects and 31% of controls were classified as nondippers (P = 0.092). There were no differences between dippers and nondippers in left ventricular wall thickness, chamber dimensions, and mass indexes. In ADPKD patients, simple regression analysis showed that LVM index was correlated with 24-h, daytime, and nighttime systolic BP. On multiple regression analysis, the 24-h systolic BP was the only variable linked to LVM index. It is concluded that young normotensive ADPKD patients have higher LVM that is closely related to the ambulatory systolic BP. The nocturnal fall in BP is attenuated in these patients, although it is not associated with the higher LVH that they present. (+info)