Cellular effects of beta-particle delivery on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells: a dose-response study.
BACKGROUND: Although endovascular radiotherapy inhibits neointimal hyperplasia, the exact cellular alterations induced by beta irradiation remain to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated in vitro the ability of 32P-labeled oligonucleotides to alter (1) proliferation of human and porcine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (ECs), (2) cell cycle progression, (3) cell viability and apoptosis, (4) cell migration, and (5) cell phenotype and morphological features. beta radiation significantly reduced proliferation of VSMCs (ED50 1.10 Gy) and ECs (ED50 2.15 Gy) in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to beta emission interfered with cell cycle progression, with induction of G0/G1 arrest in VSMCs, without evidence of cell viability alteration, apoptosis, or ultrastructural changes. This strategy also proved to efficiently inhibit VSMC migration by 80% and induce contractile phenotype appearance, as shown by the predominance of alpha-actin immunostaining in beta-irradiated cells compared with control cells. CONCLUSIONS: 32P-labeled oligonucleotide was highly effective in inhibiting proliferation of both VSMCs and ECs in a dose-dependent fashion, with ECs showing a higher resistance to these effects. beta irradiation-induced G1 arrest was not associated with cytotoxicity and apoptosis, thus demonstrating a potent cytostatic effect of beta-based therapy. This effect, coupled to that on VSMC migration inhibition and the appearance of a contractile phenotype, reinforced the potential of ionizing radiation to prevent neointima formation after angioplasty. (+info)
Effects of intracoronary beta-radiation therapy after coronary angioplasty: an intravascular ultrasound study.
BACKGROUND: Endovascular radiation is emerging as a potential solution for the prevention and treatment of restenosis. Its effects on the morphology of unstented vessels cannot be determined by angiography and therefore require the use of intravascular ultrasound. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a 5F noncentered catheter for delivery of a 90Sr/Y source train, 12, 14, or 16 Gy at 2 mm was delivered to native coronary arteries after successful balloon angioplasty in 30 patients. Four patients required stent deployment in the first week. Quantitative coronary angiography and IVUS were performed during the initial procedure and at 6-month follow-up. Binary angiographic restenosis was present in 3 of 30 patients, with target lesion and vessel revascularization performed in 3 and 5 patients, respectively. Angiographic late loss was -0.02+/-0.60 mm, with a -0.09+/-0.46 loss index. IVUS demonstrated no significant reduction in lumen area (from 5.69+/-1.72 mm2 after treatment to 6. 04+/-2.63 mm2 at follow-up), with no significant change in external elastic membrane area (13.71+/-4.54 to 14.22+/-4.71 mm2) over the 6-month follow-up. Wall area was 8.01+/-3.85 mm2 after radiation therapy and 8.19+/-3.44 mm2 at follow-up (P=NS). No significant differences were noted between the different dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: beta-Radiation therapy resulted in a low restenosis rate with negligible late loss by angiography. By IVUS, beta-radiation was shown to inhibit neointima formation, with no reduction of total vessel area at 6-month follow-up. (+info)
Bremsstrahlung radiation exposure from pure beta-ray emitters.
With increasing therapeutic use of radionuclides that emit relatively high-energy (>1 MeV) beta-rays and the production in vivo of bremsstrahlung sufficient for external imaging, the potential external radiation hazard warrants evaluation. METHODS: The exposure from a patient administered beta-ray-emitting radionuclides has been calculated by extending the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement model of a point source in air to account for biologic elimination of activity, the probability of bremsstrahlung production in vivo and its mean energy and the absorption by the patient's body of the bremsstrahlung thus produced. To facilitate such calculations, a quantity called the "specific bremsstrahlung constant" (in C/kg-cm2/MBq-h), betaBr, was devised and calculated for several radionuclides. The specific bremsstrahlung constant is the bremsstrahlung exposure rate (in C/kg/h) in air at 1 cm from a 1 MBq beta-ray emitter of a specified maximum beta-ray energy and frequency of emission in a medium of a specified effective atomic number. RESULTS: For pure beta-ray emitters, the retained activities at which patients can be released from medical confinement (i.e., below which the effective dose equivalent at 1 m will not exceed the maximum recommended value of 0.5 cSv for infrequently exposed members of the general public) are extremely large: on the order of hundreds of thousands to millions of megabecquerels. CONCLUSION: Radionuclide therapy with pure beta-ray emitters, even high-energy beta-ray emitters emitted in bone, does not require medical confinement of patients for radiation protection. (+info)
Geometric vascular remodeling after balloon angioplasty and beta-radiation therapy: A three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study.
BACKGROUND: Endovascular radiation appears to inhibit intimal thickening after overstretching balloon injury in animal models. The effect of brachytherapy on vascular remodeling is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the evolution of coronary vessel dimensions after intracoronary irradiation after successful balloon angioplasty in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one consecutive patients treated with balloon angioplasty and beta-radiation according to the Beta Energy Restenosis Trial-1.5 were included in the study. Volumetric assessment of the irradiated segment and both edges was performed after brachytherapy and at 6-month follow-up. Intravascular ultrasound images were acquired by means of ECG-triggered pullback, and 3-D reconstruction was performed by automated edge detection, allowing the calculation of lumen, plaque, and external elastic membrane (EEM) volumes. In the irradiated segments, mean EEM and plaque volumes increased significantly (451+/-128 to 490.9+/-159 mm(3) and 201.2+/-59 to 241.7+/-74 mm(3); P=0.01 and P=0.001, respectively), whereas luminal volume remained unchanged (250.8+/-91 to 249.2+/-102 mm(3); P=NS). The edges demonstrated an increase in mean plaque volume (26.8+/-12 to 32. 6+/-10 mm(3), P=0.0001) and no net change in mean EEM volume (71. 4+/-24 to 70.9+/-24 mm(3), P=NS), resulting in a decrease in mean luminal volume (44.6+/-16 to 38.3+/-16 mm(3), P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A different pattern of remodeling is observed in coronary segments treated with beta-radiation after successful balloon angioplasty. In the irradiated segments, the adaptive increase of EEM volume appears to be the major contributor to the luminal volume at follow-up. Conversely, both edges showed an increase in plaque volume without a net change in EEM volume. (+info)
Preserved endothelium-dependent vasodilation in coronary segments previously treated with balloon angioplasty and intracoronary irradiation.
BACKGROUND: Abnormal endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion has been reported after balloon angioplasty (BA), as well as after intracoronary radiation. However, the long-term effect on coronary vasomotion is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term vasomotion of coronary segments treated with BA and brachytherapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with single de novo lesions treated either with BA followed by intracoronary beta-irradiation (according to the Beta Energy Restenosis Trial-1.5) or with BA alone were eligible. Of these groups, those patients in stable condition who returned for 6-month angiographic follow-up formed the study population (n=19, irradiated group and n=11, control group). Endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion was assessed by selective infusion of serial doses of acetylcholine (ACh) proximally to the treated area. Mean luminal diameter was calculated by quantitative coronary angiography both in the treated area and in distal segments. Endothelial dysfunction was defined as a vasoconstriction after the maximal dose of ACh (10(-6) mol/L). Seventeen irradiated segments (89.5%) demonstrated normal endothelial function. In contrast, 10 distal nonirradiated segments (53%) and 5 control segments (45%) demonstrated endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction (-19+/-17% and -9.0+/-5%, respectively). Mean percentage of change in mean luminal diameter after ACh was significantly higher in irradiated segments (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Endothelium-dependent vasomotion of coronary segments treated with BA followed by beta-radiation is restored in the majority of stable patients at 6-month follow-up. This functional response appeared to be better than those documented both in the distal segments and in segments treated with BA alone. (+info)
beta-Particle-emitting radioactive stent implantation. A safety and feasibility study.
BACKGROUND: This study represents the Heart Center Rotterdam's contribution to the Isostents for Restenosis Intervention Study, a nonrandomized multicenter trial evaluating the safety and feasibility of the radioactive Isostent in patients with single coronary artery disease. Restenosis after stent implantation is primarily caused by neointimal hyperplasia. In animal studies, beta-particle-emitting radioactive stents decrease neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The radioisotope (32)P, a beta-particle emitter with a half-life of 14.3 days, was directly embedded into the Isostent. The calculated range of radioactivity was 0.75 to 1.5 microCi. Quantitative coronary angiography measurements were performed before and after the procedure and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 31 radioactive stents were used in 26 patients; 30 (97%) were successfully implanted, and 1 was embolized. Treated lesions were in the left anterior descending coronary artery (n=12), the right coronary artery (n=8), or the left circumflex coronary artery (n=6). Five patients received additional, nonradioactive stents. Treated lesion lengths were 13+/-4 mm, with a reference diameter of 2.93+/-0. 47 mm. Minimum lumen diameter increased from 0.87+/-0.28 mm preprocedure to 2.84+/-0.35 mm postprocedure. No in-hospital adverse cardiac events occurred. All patients received aspirin indefinitely and ticlopidine for 4 weeks. Twenty-three patients (88%) returned for 6-month angiographic follow-up; 17% of them had in-stent restenosis, and 13% had repeat revascularization. No restenosis was observed at the stent edges. Minimum lumen diameter at follow-up averaged 1.85+/-0.69 mm, which resulted in a late loss of 0.99+/-0. 59 mm and a late loss index of 0.53+/-0.35. No other major cardiac events occurred during the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The use of radioactive stents with an activity of 0.75 to 1.5 microCi is safe and feasible. (+info)
Effects of intracoronary radiation on thrombosis after balloon overstretch injury in the porcine model.
BACKGROUND: The main complications of PTCA remain thrombosis and restenosis. Recent studies have demonstrated reduction in the neointimal hyperplasia after intracoronary radiation (IR) with doses of 10 to 25 Gy of ionizing radiation delivered by either beta- or gamma-emitters to injured vessels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the thrombosis rate (TR) of injured porcine coronary arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-four juvenile swine (63 coronary arteries) were subjected to overstretch balloon injury followed by IR with doses of 0 to 18 Gy of either beta- or gamma-radiation. Two weeks after treatment, tissue sections were perfusion-fixed, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Verhoeff-van Gieson's stain, and analyzed for presence of a thrombus, thrombus morphology, and neointima formation by computer-assisted histomorphometry techniques. Although the overall TR increased dose-dependently from 0 to 18 Gy prescribed dose, luminal thrombi decreased. Thrombus area also decreased with increasing radiation dose, whether assessed at the prescription point or at the luminal surface, which corresponded to decreased intimal area. Furthermore, luminal thrombi present after IR tended to consist mostly of fibrin and thus were less organized than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IR induces thrombosis but does not necessarily compromise the lumen. Strategies for reducing TR may further decrease intimal area as well as increasing the safety of this therapy. (+info)
Short- and intermediate-term results of (32)P radioactive beta-emitting stent implantation in patients with coronary artery disease: The Milan Dose-Response Study.
BACKGROUND: Radioactive (32)P beta-emitting stents have been shown to reduce intrastent neointimal hyperplasia in a substantial dose-related manner in the animal model. The aim of this dose-response study was to evaluate, in the clinical setting, the safety and efficacy at 6-month follow-up of this approach to reducing restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 122 (32)P radioactive beta-emitting stents (initially the Palmaz-Schatz and later the BX Isostent) with an activity level of 0.75 to 3.0 microCi (group 1), 3.0 to 6.0 microCi (group 2), and 6.0 to 12.0 microCi (group 3) were implanted in 91 lesions in 82 patients. There were no procedural events. At 6-month follow-up, no deaths had occurred, and only 1 patient had stent thrombosis. Pure intrastent binary restenosis was 16% in group 1, 3% in group 2, and 0% in group 3. However, intralesion restenosis was 52% in group 1, 41% in group 2, and 50% in group 3. CONCLUSIONS: The use of (32)P radioactive beta-emitting stents in patients with CAD is feasible. At 6-month follow-up, intrastent neointimal hyperplasia was reduced in a dose-related manner. However, in the 3 groups, intralesion restenosis was high because of a high late lumen loss in the reference segments at the stent edges, possibly as a result of a low activity level of radiation at the edges of the stent combined with an aggressive approach to stenting. We called this "edge effect" the "candy wrapper." (+info)