Characterization of the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter: a new model for ions and diuretics interaction.
The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (TSC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the apical membrane of the mammalian distal convoluted tubule. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, rat TSC exhibits high affinity for both cotransported ions, with the Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) for Na(+) of 7.6 +/- 1.6 mM and for Cl(-) of 6.3 +/- 1.1 mM, and Hill coefficients for Na(+) and Cl(-) consistent with electroneutrality. The affinities of both Na(+) and Cl(-) were increased by increasing concentration of the counterion. The IC(50) values for thiazides were affected by both extracellular Na(+) and Cl(-). The higher the Na(+) or Cl(-) concentration, the lower the inhibitory effect of thiazides. Finally, rTSC function is affected by extracellular osmolarity. We propose a transport model featuring a random order of binding in which the binding of each ion facilitates the binding of the counterion. Both ion binding sites alter thiazide-mediated inhibition of transport, indicating that the thiazide-binding site is either shared or modified by both Na(+) and Cl(-). (+info)
Atenolol and bendrofluazide in hypertension.
The effect of atenolol, a new beta-1-adrenergic receptor blocking agent, was studied in a double-blind cross-over trial in 24 carefully selected hypertensive outpatients. After a four-week run-in period on matching placebo each patient received atenolol 200 mg/day, atenolol 400 mg/day, a combination of atenolol 200/mg day with bendrofluazide 5 mg/day, and bendrofluazide 5 mg/day alone, according to a random sequence. Atenolol at either dose produced a significantly greater reduction in all blood pressure levels except standing systolic pressure than bendrofluazide alone. There was no statistically significant difference between the effects of the two atenolol doses on either blood pressure or pulse rate. The addition of bendrofluazide to atenolol resulted in a further significant lowering of the blood pressure. A significant effect of thiazide on weight was noted. The study shows that atenolol, a cardioselective beta-blocker of similar potency to propranolol in animals but without membrane-stabilizing or partial agonist acitivity, is an effective and well-tolerated hypotensive agent. (+info)
Improvement in midwall myocardial shortening with regression of left ventricular hypertrophy.
Despite normal indices of left ventricular (LV) chamber function, patients with LV hypertrophy (LVH) due to hypertension are thought to have depressed midwall systolic shortening compared with normotensives. The aims of the present study were (1) to confirm this observation and (2) to assess the effects of antihypertensive therapy that cause regression of LVH on LV systolic function assessed at both the midwall and endocardium. Thirty-eight previously untreated hypertensive subjects with LVH underwent echocardiography and were compared with 38 normotensive control subjects. Comparisons between the group with LVH and the control group revealed no significant differences in cardiac output (4. 32+/-0.23 versus 4.55+/-0.21 L/min), ejection fraction (62.5+/-2% versus 66.4+/-1.07%), or endocardial fractional shortening (34.5+/-1.45% versus 37.0+/-0.82%), but shortening assessed at the midwall was significantly less in the group with LVH (17.9+/-1.11% versus 21.6+/-0.63%, P<0.01). Subsequently, 32 patients with uncontrolled hypertension (24 previously untreated and 8 on existing antihypertensive therapy) underwent treatment with ramipril, with the addition of felodipine and bendrofluazide if required, to reduce blood pressure to <140/90 mm Hg. These 32 patients underwent echocardiography at baseline, after blood pressure control, and after an additional 6 months of tight blood pressure control. Good blood pressure control was achieved after 6 months compared with baseline (143/86+/-2.8/1.4 versus 174/103+/-4.1/1.9 mm Hg; P<0.01) with significant regression of LV mass index (124+/-3.4 versus 145+/-3.8 g/m(2), P<0.01). LV fractional shortening assessed at the midwall improved with regression of LVH (21.9+/-0.84 and 18.7+/-1. 19%, P<0.05), with posttreatment midwall shortening being similar to that of the normal control subjects evaluated in the first study. Hypertensive patients with LVH have depressed midwall systolic shortening despite normal indices of LV chamber function. Regression of LVH after good blood pressure control improved midwall shortening to normal levels. (+info)
Electrical potential difference, sodium absorption and potassium secretion by the human rectum during carbenoxolone therapy.
The transmucosal electrical potential difference (pd) and the sodium and potassium net fluxes were measured in the rectum of subjects taking carbenoxolone. There was a rise in transmucosal pd persisting throughout treatment in all subjects which was accompanied by an increase in sodium absorption and potassium secretion. Comparison of the pd changes produced by carbenoxolone with those due to the mineralocorticoid 9-alpha-fluorocortisol showed that carbenoxolone had about 1/1000th the potency on a weight basis and the two drugs appeared to be additive in their effects. Topical instillation of carbenoxolone into the rectum produced an elevation of pd which persisted for three days. Amiloride and bendrofluazide did not interfere with these actions of carbenoxolone but spironolactone abolished them. One patient who developed fluid retention and hypokalaemia had a rectal pd similar to that of the other patients who had no side effects. (+info)
Nebivolol reverses endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial dysfunction may predict future atherosclerosis. Hence, an antihypertensive agent that reverses endothelial dysfunction and lowers blood pressure might improve the prognosis of patients with hypertension. We hypothesized that nebivolol, a vasodilating beta-blocker, could improve endothelial dysfunction. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of nebivolol and atenolol on endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve hypertensive patients with a mean ambulatory blood pressure of 154+/-7/97+/-10 mm Hg were randomized after a 2-week placebo run-in period (baseline) in a double-blind, crossover fashion to 8-week treatment periods with either 5 mg of nebivolol with 2.5 mg of bendrofluazide or 50 mg of atenolol with 2.5 mg of bendrofluazide. Forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) were used to assess stimulated and basal endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside was used as an endothelium-independent control. Nebivolol/bendrofluazide and atenolol/bendrofluazide each lowered the clinic blood pressure to the same extent (132+/-7/82+/-6 and 132+/-9/83+/-8 mm Hg, respectively; P<0.001 from baseline). The vasodilatory response to acetylcholine was significantly increased with nebivolol/bendrofluazide (maximum percentage change in forearm blood flow [mean+/-SEM], 435+/-27%, P<0.001) but not with atenolol/bendrofluazide. Similarly, the endothelium-dependent vasoconstrictive response to L-NMMA was significantly improved only with nebivolol treatment (percentage change in forearm blood flow, -54+/-5%; P<0.001). The response to sodium nitroprusside was not different between treatments, suggesting that the endothelium-independent pathway was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Nebivolol/bendrofluazide increased both stimulated and basal endothelial nitric oxide release, whereas for the same degree of blood pressure control, atenolol/bendrofluazide had no effect on nitric oxide bioactivity. Thus, nebivolol may offer additional vascular protection in treating hypertension. (+info)
Role of sodium depletion in acute antidiuretic effect of bendroflumethiazide in rats with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
The mechanisms underlying the acute antidiuretic response to bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ; 0.25 mg/h for 3 h) in rats with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) was investigated. NDI was induced in conscious chronically instrumented female Wistar rats either by chronic lithium administration (40-60 mmol Li/kg of diet for 4 weeks) or by acute infusion of V2 antagonist OPC-31260 (0.2 mg/h). Renal clearance experiments were performed in conscious rats instrumented with permanent catheters. During experiments total body water content was held constant by i.v. replacement of urine production (V) with 150 mM glucose. One group in addition received i.v. replacement of urinary sodium losses. In both models of NDI, BFTZ-induced antidiuresis was associated with a decrease in the delivery of tubular fluid to the distal nephron, as measured by lithium clearance (C(Li)). Both the antidiuresis and the decrease in C(Li) could be prevented by sodium replacement. BFTZ did not affect distal water handling as measured by V/C(Li). BFTZ did not induce antidiuresis in normal rats with water diuresis. It is concluded that in rats with NDI, thiazide-induced antidiuresis can be entirely explained by a fall in distal delivery of tubular fluid related to sodium depletion. This contrasts the response in rats with central diabetes insipidus, where thiazides in addition increase distal water reabsorption. (+info)
Monitoring one-year compliance to antihypertension medication in the Seychelles.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the compliance to medication among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients screened from the general population of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country. METHODS: Among the 1067 participants to a population-based survey for cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension was discovered in 50 (previously unaware of having hypertension and having blood pressure > or = 160/95 mmHg over 3 visits). These 50 patients were placed on a daily one-pill regimen of medication (bendrofluazide, atenolol, or a combination of hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol) and compliance to the regimen was assessed over 12 months using electronic pill containers. Satisfactory compliance was defined as taking the medication on 6 or 7 days a week on average (which corresponds to a mean compliance level of > or = 86%). FINDINGS: In the first month, fewer than half (46%) of the new hypertension patients achieved satisfactory compliance, and only about one-quarter (26%) achieved this level by the twelfth month. Compliance was better among the 23 participants who regularly attended medical follow-up, with nearly three-quarters of these patients (74%) achieving satisfactory compliance during the first month and over one-half (55%) by the twelfth month. There was a direct association between mean 12-month compliance level and having a highly skilled occupation; having good health awareness; and regularly attending medical appointments. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between mean compliance level and heavy drinking. CONCLUSION: The low proportion of people selected from the general population who were capable of sustaining satisfactory compliance to antihypertension medication may correspond to the maximum effectiveness of medication interventions based on a screening and treatment strategy in the general population. The results stress the need for both high-risk and population approaches to improve hypertension control. (+info)
Von Willebrand factor, soluble P-selectin, and target organ damage in hypertension: a substudy of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT).
To investigate the relationship between soluble markers of platelet, endothelial and rheological function, and target organ damage and their response to intensified management in a population of middle-age hypertensive patients at high risk of cardiovascular complications, we studied 382 consecutive patients (308 men; mean age, 63 years, SD 8) along with 60 normotensive controls free of cardiovascular disease. Patients were divided into those with target organ damage (TOD; n=107) and those free of end-organ damage. Plasma levels of soluble P-selectin (sP-sel), a marker of platelet activation, and von Willebrand factor (vWF), an index of endothelial damage/dysfunction (both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the rheological indices fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, platelet, and white cell count were measured. In 53 patients, variables were further measured after 6 months of intensified cardiovascular risk management. Patients with TOD had significantly higher vWF, 137 (SD 33) versus 125 (SD 33) IU/dL (P=0.002,) and a greater proportion of smokers, 31% versus 16% (P=0.002). There were no statistically significant differences in plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematocrit, white blood cell count, platelet count, or sP-sel between the 2 subgroups. In multivariate analysis, vWF was a significant independent predictor for TOD. After 6 months of intensified management in 53 patients who entered the trial, there were significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, hematocrit, plasma viscosity, sP-sel, and vWF (all P<0.01) but no significant change in fibrinogen. In conclusion, there is a relationship between TOD and endothelial damage/dysfunction in hypertension. Intensified management results in improvements in hemorheology, endothelial and platelet function. (+info)