Phycomycotic gastritis in buffalo calves (Bubalis bubalis).
Mycotic gastritis, primarily caused by Rhizopus sp. was seen in six buffalo calves (7-13 days old) at postmortem examination. The predominant lesions were numerous raised ulcers in which were hyphae of Rhizopus. In three calves, Candida organisms were also present superficially in the ulcers. Other changes in the mucosa were severe congestion, haemorrhage, thrombosis, necrosis, and infiltration by lymphocytes and neutrophils. Both Rhizopus and Candida were highly pathogenic to rabbits when inoculated intravenously. The disease could not be reproduced experimentally by feeding of Rhizopus orally to rabbits and calves. (+info)
Functional differentiation in trematode hemoglobin isoforms.
The Hbs and the major electrophoretic Hb components (isoHbs) were isolated from three species of the trematodes, Explanatum explanatum (Ee), Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc) and Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), that parasitise the common Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The Hbs are monomeric and resemble the so-called nonfunctional mutant hemoglobins that have Tyr at B10 or E7 positions (replacing Leu and the His residues, respectively). However, they are capable of binding with O2 and CO. O2 equilibrium studies of trematode Hb isoforms reveal extremely high O2 affinities, with half-saturation O2 tension (P50) values up to 800 times lower than those of human hemoglobins. This correlates with Tyr residues at B10 and at the distal position (E7) that decrease the O2 dissociation rate by contributing hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) to the bound O2. These substitutions also increase the O2 association rates either due to orientation of E7-Tyr towards the solvent and/or by sterically hindering the entry of water molecules into the heme pocket. The latter may account for the low rate of autoxidation of trematode Hbs. The Hbs and their isoforms from different species exhibited pronounced variation in O2 affinity, which may relate to subtle differences in the structure of the heme pocket. The O2 affinities of the composite (unfractionated) Hbs were intermediate to those of the individual Hb isoform. The P50 values of Hbs here obtained by direct O2 equilibrium measurements differed from those calculated from kinetic data already published [Kiger, L., Rashid, A. K., Griffon, N., Haque, M., Moens, L.,Gibson, Q. H., Poyart, C., & Marden, M. C. (1998). Biophys. J. 75, 990-998.] Intermediate state(s) due to slow reorientation of E7-Tyr may account for this difference. Some Hb isoforms showed slight (either normal or reverse) Bohr effects. The hyperbolic O2 equilibrium curve, Hill coefficient (n) values near unity accord with a monomeric nature of trematode Hbs. In marked contrast to vertebrate Hbs, CO does not seem to compete effectively with O2 in trematode Hbs, as evident from partition coefficient values (M) below 1. (+info)
Relative frequencies of G and P types among rotaviruses from Indian diarrheic cow and buffalo calves.
While an increasing number of studies suggest that there is a high prevalence of rotaviruses with P8, a typical P type of bovine rotavirus (BRV), among human neonates or infants in India, no data are available on the distribution of G and P types of Indian BRVs. Thus, fecal specimens were collected from cow and buffalo calves under 1 month of age on organized dairy farms in India during the period between 1994 and 1997, and 36 rotavirus-positive specimens were used to determine the relative frequencies of the G and P types of Indian BRVs. As to the G type, G10 was predominant (83%), followed by G6 (6%). The majority (94%) of BRVs had P8, and only one isolate possessed P6. The most common combination of G and P types was G10P8 (81%), followed by G6P6 (3%) and G6P8 (3%). The high prevalence of BRVs possessing P8 VP4s strongly supports the hypothesis that BRVs may cross the host species barrier and circulate among neonates in India. (+info)
Clearance of trypanosomes from the blood of infected Cape buffalo was associated with the development of two responses: (i) complement-dependent and clone-specific lytic activity and (ii) complement-independent trypanocidal activity that was not restricted by trypanosome clone or species. This latter activity was mediated by H2O2 and required the presence of xanthine oxidase in serum but not the addition of purine substrates. Expression of the xanthine oxidase-dependent trypanocidal activity in Cape buffalo serum was coincident with, and required, a decline in its H2O2 catabolic activity. The H2O2 catabolic activity of Cape buffalo serum was due solely to catalase and declined by eightfold around the time that trypanosomes were cleared from the blood, accompanied by a fivefold drop in erythrocyte-associated catalase activity. The Cape buffalo did not develop subsequent parasitemic waves. Clearance of parasitemia in similarly infected cattle was also associated with development of trypanosome clone-specific lytic activity, but not with the acquisition of H2O2-dependent trypanocidal activity in serum, and the cattle supported recurring parasitemia. The lack of trypanocidal activity in pre- and postinfection cattle sera was due to their low content of xanthine oxidase and sustained catalase activity. These data strongly suggest that an infection-induced serum oxidative response, the efficacy of which is amplified by a decline in blood catalase, contributes to suppression of recurring parasitemia in Cape buffalo. (+info)
Characterization and chromosomal distribution of satellite DNA sequences of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).
Satellite DNA sequences were isolated from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) after digestion with two restriction endonucleases, BamHI and StuI. These satellite DNAs of the water buffalo were classified into two types by sequence analysis: one had an approximately 1,400 bp tandem repeat unit with 79% similarity to the bovine satellite I DNA; the other had an approximately 700 bp tandem repeat unit with 81% similarity to the bovine satellite II DNA. The chromosomal distribution of the satellite DNAs were examined in the river-type and the swamp-type buffaloes with direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization. Both the buffalo satellite DNAs were localized to the centromeric regions of all chromosomes in the two types of buffaloes. The hybridization signals with the buffalo satellite I DNA on the acrocentric autosomes and X chromosome were much stronger than that on the biarmed autosomes and Y chromosome, which corresponded to the distribution of C-band-positive centromeric heterochromatin. This centromere-specific satellite DNA also existed in the interstitial region of the long arm of chromosome 1 of the swamp-type buffalo, which was the junction of the telomere-centromere tandem fusion that divided the karyotype in the two types of buffaloes. The intensity of the hybridization signals with buffalo satellite II DNA was almost the same over all the chromosomes, including the Y chromosome, and no additional hybridization signal was found in noncentromeric sites. (+info)
A novel pentasaccharide from immunostimulant oligosaccharide fraction of buffalo milk.
A processed oligosaccharide mixture of buffalo milk induced significant stimulation of antibody, delayed-type hypersensitivity response to sheep red blood cells in BALB/c mice. This also stimulated non-specific immune response of the animals measured in terms of macrophage migration index. A novel pentasaccharide has been isolated from the oligosaccharide containing fraction having immunostimulant activity of buffalo milk. This compound was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography, silica gel column chromatography of derivatised oligosaccharides while the homogeneity was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. The results of structural analyses, i.e. proton nuclear magnetic resonance, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, chemical transformations and degradations are consistent with the following structure: GlcNAcbeta(1-->3)Galbeta(1-->4)GlcNAcbeta(1-->3)Gal beta(1-->4)Glc (+info)
Genetic analysis of type O viruses responsible for epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in North Africa.
The nucleotide sequences of the 3' end of the capsid-coding region were determined for 30 serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses isolated between 1987 and 1994 from outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East. These sequences were compared with the previously published sequences of 9 field virus isolates from the Middle East and 5 vaccine virus strains, 3 of which originated from the Middle East (O1/Turkey/Manisa/69, O1/Sharquia/Egypt/72 and O1/Israel/2/85) and 2 from Europe (O1/Lausanne/Switzerland/65 and O2/Brescia/Italy/47). Cluster analysis of these sequences using the unweighted pair group mean average (UPGMA) method showed: (i) that the FMD viruses isolated from North Africa and the Middle East were very different from the classical European vaccine strains; (ii) that all the viruses isolated during the 1989-92 North African epidemic formed a cluster differing by no more than 6% from each other; (iii) a virus isolated in Libya in 1988 was unrelated to the aforementioned epidemic; and (iv) viruses from a second, less extensive epidemic, occurring in 1994, fell into yet another cluster. (+info)
Effect of pen size on behavioral, endocrine, and immune responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.
Female water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves (n = 28) aged 7 to 10 d were divided into four groups of seven animals each to examine the effects of space allowance (Group A: 2.6 indoor m2 + 2.0 outdoor m2/calf; Group B: 2.6 indoor m2/calf; Group C: 1.5 indoor m2/calf; Group D: 1.0 indoor m2/calf) on behavioral, endocrine, and immune variables for a period of 60 d. Animals were offered 7 L/d of a commercial acidified milk substitute. The calves averaged 45.9 kg initially and 92.4 kg finally. The behavior observations were conducted 7 d after grouping and fortnightly thereafter. At wk 4 and 8, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test was performed to induce aspecific delayed hypersensitivity. At wk. 1 and 3, calves were injected i.m. with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Antibody titers were determined at weekly intervals for 7 wk. Calves in pens with greater space allowance (Groups A and B) were less active than Groups C and D (P<.001). The latter groups were also observed feeding more often at wk 7 (P<.01). Calves provided with an outdoor paddock spent less time standing than Groups C and D (P<.01), and lay with a greater number of outstretched legs (P<.001). Groups C and D showed a lower reaction to PHA in both skin tests than did Groups A and B (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). Group A showed an antibody response consistently higher than groups B, C, and D (P<.01, P<.05, and P<.05, respectively). At the end of the experimental period, the calves were subjected to an isolation test lasting 10 min. Group D showed a longer duration of movement with respect to Groups A and B (P<.01); animals from Group C walked more than did Group A (P<.05). Cortisol concentration evaluated 0, 10, 45, 90, 150, and 225 min after separation from the group was higher in Groups C and D than in Groups A and B (P<.01). For all animals, the highest cortisol level was observed immediately after the isolation test (P<.001). Space restriction resulted in evidence of stress in the animals as shown by alterations in a number of physiological responses. However, the use of small groups of only seven animals per pen may have affected their reactions to space restriction. It is possible that using larger groups could change these conclusions. (+info)