Hypokalaemic paralysis revealing Sjogren syndrome in an elderly man.
A 73 year old white man presented with life threatening hypokalaemic paralysis requiring admission to an intensive care unit. Biochemical investigations showed severe hypokalaemia with hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis, a spot urine pH of 6.5, and a positive urinary anion gap, establishing the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. Autoimmune tests revealed Sjogren syndrome as the underlying cause of the distal renal tubular acidosis. Full recovery followed potassium and alkali replacement. This dramatic presentation of Sjogren syndrome has not previously been reported in an elderly man. (+info)
The occurrence of renal involvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome: a study of 78 patients.
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the occurrence of renal involvement in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS: Urinary total protein excretion from 24 h urine collection, as well as urinary excretion rates of albumin, alpha-1 microglobulin (alpha1m) and IgG from overnight 8 h collections, were determined from 78 pSS patients (75 females, three males). Urine acidification capacity after oral ammonium chloride load was tested in 55 of these patients. RESULTS: Mild proteinuria (0.15-0.42 g/24 h) was observed in 34 patients (44%). Increased urinary excretion rates of albumin (>/=20 microgram/min), alpha1m (>/=7.0 microgram/min) or IgG (>/=5.0 microgram/min) were detected in nine (12%), nine (12%) and 11 patients (14%), respectively. Latent or overt distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was observed in 18 out of 55 patients with pSS (33%). These patients had a longer duration of the disease (10+/-4 vs 8+/-4 yr; P+info)
Autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis associated with Southeast Asian ovalocytosis.
BACKGROUND: A defect in the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) of the basolateral membrane of type A intercalated cells in the renal collecting duct may result in a failure to maintain a cell-to-lumen H+ gradient, leading to distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Thus, dRTA may occur in Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO), a common AE1 gene abnormality observed in Southeast Asia and Melanesia. Our study investigated whether or not this renal acidification defect exists in individuals with SAO. METHODS: Short and three-day NH4Cl loading tests were performed in 20 individuals with SAO and in two subjects, including their families, with both SAO and dRTA. Mutations of AE1 gene in individuals with SAO and members of the two families were also studied. RESULTS: Renal acidification in the 20 individuals with SAO and in the parents of the two families was normal. However, the two clinically affected individuals with SAO and dRTA had compound heterozygosity of 27 bp deletion in exon 11 and missense mutation G701D resulting from a CGG-->CAG substitution in exon 17 of the AE1 gene. Red cells of the two subjects with dRTA and SAO and the family members with SAO showed an approximate 40% reduction in sulfate influx with normal 4,4'-di-isothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid sensitivity and pH dependence. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that compound heterozygosity of abnormal AE1 genes causes autosomal recessive dRTA in SAO. (+info)
Localization of a gene for autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis with normal hearing (rdRTA2) to 7q33-34.
Failure of distal nephrons to excrete excess acid results in the "distal renal tubular acidoses" (dRTA). Early childhood features of autosomal recessive dRTA include severe metabolic acidosis with inappropriately alkaline urine, poor growth, rickets, and renal calcification. Progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is evident in approximately one-third of patients. We have recently identified mutations in ATP6B1, encoding the B-subunit of the collecting-duct apical proton pump, as a cause of recessive dRTA with SNHL. We now report the results of genetic analysis of 13 kindreds with recessive dRTA and normal hearing. Analysis of linkage and molecular examination of ATP6B1 indicated that mutation in ATP6B1 rarely, if ever, accounts for this phenotype, prompting a genomewide linkage search for loci underlying this trait. The results strongly supported linkage with locus heterogeneity to a segment of 7q33-34, yielding a maximum multipoint LOD score of 8.84 with 68% of kindreds linked. The LOD-3 support interval defines a 14-cM region flanked by D7S500 and D7S688. That 4 of these 13 kindreds do not support linkage to rdRTA2 and ATP6B1 implies the existence of at least one additional dRTA locus. These findings establish that genes causing recessive dRTA with normal and impaired hearing are different, and they identify, at 7q33-34, a new locus, rdRTA2, for recessive dRTA with normal hearing. (+info)
NH4+ secretion in inner medullary collecting duct in potassium deprivation: role of colonic H+-K+-ATPase.
NH4+ secretion in inner medullary collecting duct in potassium deprivation: Role of colonic H+-K+-ATPase. BACKGROUND: In K+ deprivation (KD), gastric (g) H+-K+-ATPase (HKA) is suppressed, whereas colonic (c) HKA is induced in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). We hypothesized that in KD, cHKA is induced and can mediate the secretion of NH4+. METHODS: Rats were sacrificed after 2, 3, 6, or 14 days on regular (NML) or K+-free (KD) diet. mRNA expression of HKA isoforms in terminal inner medulla was examined and correlated with NH4+ secretion in perfused IMCD in vitro. RESULTS: Urinary NH4+ excretion increased after K+-free diet for six days. In terminal inner medulla, cHKA expression was strongly induced, whereas gHKA expression was decreased. NH4+ secretion increased by 62% in KD (JtNH4+ 0.57 vs. 0.92 pmol/min/mm tubule length, P < 0.001). Ouabain (1 mM) in perfusate inhibited NH4+ secretion in KD by 45% (P < 0.002) but not in NML. At luminal pH 7.7, which inhibits NH3 diffusion, NH4+ secretion in IMCD was 140% higher in KD (0.36 vs. 0.15, P < 0.03) and was sensitive to ouabain. ROMK-1 mRNA expression was induced in parallel with cHKA in inner medulla. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that in KD, cHKA replaces gHKA and mediates enhanced secretion of NH4+ (and H+) into the lumen facilitated by K+ recycling through ROMK-1. (+info)
Study of urinary acidification in patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia.
Hypocitraturia (HCit) is one of the most remarkable features of renal tubular acidosis, but an acidification defect is not seen in the majority of hypocitraturic patients, whose disease is denoted idiopathic hypocitraturia. In order to assess the integrity of urinary acidification mechanisms in hypocitraturic idiopathic calcium stone formers, we studied two groups of patients, hypocitraturic (HCit, N = 21, 39.5 +/- 11.5 years, 11 females and 10 males) and normocitraturic (NCit, N = 23, 40.2 +/- 11.7 years, 16 females and 7 males) subjects, during a short ammonium chloride loading test lasting 8 h. During the baseline period HCit patients showed significantly higher levels of titratable acid (TA). After the administration of ammonium chloride, mean urinary pH (3rd to 8th hour) and TA and ammonium excretion did not differ significantly between groups. Conversely, during the first hour mean urinary pH was lower and TA and ammonium excretion was higher in HCit. The enhanced TA excretion by HCit during the baseline period and during the first hour suggests that the phosphate buffer mechanism is activated. The earlier response in ammonium excretion by HCit further supports other evidence that acidification mechanisms react promptly. The present results suggest that in the course of lithiasic disease, hypocitraturia coexists with subtle changes in the excretion of hydrogen ions in basal situations. (+info)
Hypokalaemic paralysis is a relatively uncommon but potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome. If recognised and treated appropriately, patients recover without any clinical sequellae. The syndrome of hypokalaemic paralysis represents a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised clinically by hypokalaemia and acute systemic weakness. Most cases are due to familial or primary hypokalaemic periodic paralysis; sporadic cases are associated with numerous other conditions including barium poisoning, hyperthyroidism, renal disorders, certain endocrinopathies and gastrointestinal potassium losses. The age of onset, race, family history, medications, and underlying disease states can help in identifying the cause of hypokalaemic paralysis. Initial therapy of the patient with hypokalaemic paralysis includes potassium replacement and search for underlying aetiology. Further management depends on the aetiology of hypokalaemia, severity of symptoms, and duration of disease. This review presents the differential diagnosis for hypokalaemic paralysis and discusses management of the syndrome. (+info)
Renal involvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome.
Renal involvement was evaluated in 62 patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome, classified according to criteria proposed by The European Classification Criteria Group. Urine concentration capacity was tested using intranasal 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin. For patients with urine pH>5.5 without metabolic acidosis (n=28), an acidification test with ammonium chloride was performed. Urinary citrate, albumin, NAG, ALP and beta2-microglobulin were measured and creatinine clearance was calculated. Maximum urine concentration capacity and creatinine clearance were reduced in 13 (21%). Albumin excretion was >30 microg/min in only one patient (1.6%). Seven patients (11.3%) had complete or incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), four had reduced creatinine clearance and five had reduced maximum urine concentration capacity. The ratio of citrate/creatinine in spot urine was below the 2.5 percentile in all patients with complete or incomplete dRTA. The prevalence of dRTA was lower than in previous studies. There were also few patients with signs of glomerular disease (1.6%). The use of citrate:creatinine ratio in spot urine can be a helpful method in identifying patients with complete or incomplete dRTA. (+info)