Frequency and causes of discrepancy between Kt/V and creatinine clearance.
This study examines the frequency of discrepancy between Kt/V urea and creatinine clearance (Ccr) measurements in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the reasons for this discrepancy. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, retrospective data analysis. SETTING: Single PD unit of a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All adult patients receiving PD at our center from January 1995 to December 1996. METHODS: Actual (a) and desired (d) body weight (BW) were used to calculate urea volume of distribution (V) and body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups based upon their total small solute clearances (Kt/V and Ccr, normalized by actual weight) and three additional groups based upon actual/desired (a/d) body weight ratio. An additional analysis was performed for the subset of anuric patients. Data collected for all patients included the following: total Kt, total Ccr, 4-hour dialysate/ plasma (D/P) creatinine, serum albumin concentration, duration of PD, actual body weight, age, and height. RESULTS: Twenty-three percent of the clearance measurements in our study were discrepant, defined as having values for either Kt/V or Ccr (but not both) above the accepted targets of Kt/V > or = 2.0/wk and Ccr > or = 60 L/wk/ 1.73 m2. Patients with both values above target are more likely to have higher residual renal function. Patients who are significantly less than BWd and patients on PD for a longer time are more likely to have adequate Kt/V but not Ccr. Furthermore, patients who are less than 90% or greater than 110% of BWd have markedly different values for Kt/V and Ccr when BWa versus BWd values are used. CONCLUSIONS: Kt/V and Ccr values are frequently discrepant; a number of factors affect these two measurements to varying degrees, including weight, degree of residual renal function, and duration of PD. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics of intermittent intraperitoneal cefazolin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of intermittent intraperitoneal (IP) cefazolin, and recommend a cefazolin dosing regimen in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. DESIGN: Prospective nonrandomized open study. SETTING: CAPD outpatient clinic in Albany, New York. PATIENTS: Seven volunteer CAPD patients without peritonitis. Three of the patients were nonanuric while 4 were anuric. INTERVENTIONS: Cefazolin (15 mg/kg total body weight) was given to each patient during the first peritoneal exchange. Blood and dialysate samples were collected at times 0, 0.5, 1,2,3,6 (end of the first antibiotic-containing dwell), 24, and 48 hours after the administration of IP cefazolin. Urine samples were collected in nonanuric patients over the study period. RESULTS: The mean+/-SD amount of cefazolin dose absorbed from the dialysate after the 6-hour dwell was 69.7%+/-8.0% of the administered dose. The cefazolin absorption rate constant from dialysate to serum was 0.21+/-0.1/hr (absorption half-life 3.5+/-0.8 hr). The mean serum concentrations reached at 24 and 48 hours were 52.4+/-3.7 mg/L and 30.3+/-5.9 mg/L, respectively. The mean dialysate cefazolin concentrations reached at 24 and 48 hours were 15.1+/-3.4 mg/L and 7.9+/-1.4 mg/L, respectively. The cefazolin serum elimination rate constant was 0.02+/-0.01/hr (elimination half-life 31.5+/-8.8 hr). The total cefazolin body clearance was 3.4+/-0.6 ml/min. In the 3 nonanuric patients the mean renal clearance of cefazolin was 0.6+/-0.4 ml/min. The peritoneal clearance of cefazolin was 1.0+/-0.3 mL/min. The systemic volume of distribution of cefazolin was 0.2+/-0.05 L/kg. No statistical difference was detected in pharmacokinetic parameters between anuric and nonanuric patients, although this may be due to the small number of patients in each group. CONCLUSION: A single daily dose of cefazolin dosed at 15 mg/kg actual body weight in CAPD patients is effective in achieving serum concentration levels greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration for sensitive organisms over 48 hours, and dialysate concentration levels over 24 hours. Caution is warranted in extrapolation of dosing recommendations to patients who maintain a significant degree of residual renal function. (+info)
Peritoneal dialysis adequacy: a model to assess feasibility with various modalities.
BACKGROUND: The current standard of adequacy for peritoneal dialysis (PD) is to provide a weekly normalized urea clearance (Kt/V) of 2.0 or more and a creatinine clearance (CCr) of 60 liter/1.73 m2 or more. As native renal function is lost, it is important to determine the effectiveness of the available therapeutic modalities in achieving these goals. METHODS: A model to assess our ability to provide a weekly Kt/Vurea of 2.0 or more and a CCr of 60 liter/1.73 m2 or more to anuric patients undergoing continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and automated PD (PD Plus) was developed. The body surface area (BSA) distribution was obtained from 38,768 patients undergoing dialysis during January 1997. The distribution of peritoneal transport rates (PTRs) was obtained from 2531 peritoneal equilibration tests performed during 1996. The weekly Kpt/Vurea was calculated for the various PTR groups and the range of BSA with four PD prescriptions: CAPD 8 liters, CAPD 10 liters, PD Plus 12 liters, and PD Plus 15 liters, using a previously validated kinetic program (PackPD). RESULTS: The predicted percentage of patients capable of achieving the adequacy goals for Kt/V and CCr, respectively, were 24.8 and 11. 2 for CAPD 8 liters, 54.2 and 33.0 for CAPD 10 liters, 77.8 and 54.9 for PD Plus 12 liters, and 93.2 and 72.9 for PD Plus 15 liters. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients can attain the current adequacy standards of therapy with automated PD, but few (less than 25%) can do so with standard CAPD in the absence of residual renal function. (+info)
The effect of small solute clearances on survival of anuric peritoneal dialysis patients.
OBJECTIVE: Primarily, to determine whether peritoneal small solute clearance is related to patient and technique survival among anuric peritoneal dialysis [continuous ambulatory (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)] patients. A secondary goal was to describe the ability to attain Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (DOQI) targets among anuric patients on peritoneal dialysis. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study via chart reviews. SETTING: Peritoneal Dialysis Unit of Toronto Hospital (Western Division). PATIENTS: The study included 122 CAPD and APD patients between January 1992 and September 1997, with 24-hour urine volume less than 100 mL, or renal creatinine clearance (CCr) less than 1 mL/minute. Adequacy data were available for 115 patients. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and technique failure (TF). Regression analysis was used to estimate the mortality and TF rate ratios (RR) for peritoneal Kt/V urea (pKt/V) and pCCr, adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, months of follow-up prior to anuria, albumin, transport status, coronary artery disease, cardiovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. RESULTS: Fifty seven per cent (51/89) of patients on CAPD and 81% (21/26) on APD had a weekly pKt/V > or = 2 and > or = 2.2, respectively (DOQI targets); whereas only 35% on CAPD (31/89) and 35% (9/26) on APD had a weekly pCCr > or = 60 U1.73 m2 and 66 L/1.73 m2, respectively. Median follow-up times among patients were 16.5 and 19.5 months pre- and postanuria, respectively. Patients with pKt/V > or = 1.85 experienced a strong decrease in patient mortality (RR = 0.54, p= 0.10); the effect was less pronounced for pCCr > or = 50 L/1.73 m2 (RR = 0.63, p = 0.25). No relationship was observed between pKt/V or pCCr and TF. CONCLUSION: Mortality was noticeably less frequent among patients with a pKt/V > or = 1.85 compared with those with a Kt/W < 1.85 (p = 0.10). Given the magnitude of the association, the failure to observe statistical significance relates to the size of the patient cohort. Our results imply that it is, in fact, possible to achieve DOQI targets among anuric patients on peritoneal dialysis. (+info)
Impact of dialysis adequacy on the mortality and morbidity of anuric Chinese patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Dialysis adequacy has a major impact on the outcome of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. However, most studies on peritoneal dialysis adequacy have focused on patients with significant residual renal function. The present study examined the effect of dialysis adequacy on anuric CAPD patients. A single-center prospective observational study on 140 anuric CAPD patients was performed. These patients were followed for 22.0 +/- 11.9 mo. Dialysis adequacy and nutritional indices, including Kt/V, creatinine clearance (CCr), protein equivalent nitrogen appearance, percentage of lean body mass, and serum albumin level were monitored. Clinical outcomes included actuarial patient survival, technique survival, and duration of hospitalization. In the study population, 64 were male, 36 (25.7%) were diabetic, and 59 (42.1%) were treated with 6 L exchanges per day. The body weight was 59.2 +/- 10.2 kg. Average Kt/V was 1.72 +/- 0.31, and CCr was 43.7 +/- 11.5 L/wk per 1.73m(2). Two-yr patient survival was 68.8%, and technique survival was 61.4%. Multivariate analysis showed that DM, duration of dialysis before enrollment, serum albumin, and index of dialysis adequacy (Kt/V or CCr) were independent factors of both patient survival and technique survival. It was estimated that for two patients who differed only in weekly Kt/V, a 0.1 higher value was associated with a 6% decrease in the RR of death (P: < 0.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.92 to 0.99). Serum albumin and CCr were the only independent factors that predicted hospitalization. It was found that even when there is no residual renal function, higher dialysis dosage is associated with better actuarial patient survival, better technique survival, and shorter hospitalization. Dialysis adequacy has a significant impact on the clinical outcome of CAPD patients, and the beneficial effect is preserved in anuric patients as well as in an ethnic group that has a low overall mortality. (+info)
Haemodialysis with the biocompatible high permeability AN-69 membrane does not alter plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3.
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) bioactivity has been reported to be decreased in maintenance haemodialysis patients and this may affect their nutritional status. Clearances of IGF-I and its binding proteins (IGFBPs) during haemodialysis sessions using a high permeability biocompatible membrane are unknown. METHODS: Five well nourished, non-diabetic adult patients were studied during one 4-h morning haemodialysis treatment using the high permeability biocompatible AN-69 dialyser. Blood was collected at the arterial and venous ports of the dialyser at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h of dialysis for haematocrit, plasma IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and insulin measurements. IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and insulin concentrations were adjusted for haemoconcentration before comparisons were made. RESULTS: At the beginning of the dialysis session, plasma IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and insulin levels were within the normal range (297 +/- 47 ng/ml (mean+/-SEM), 4.3 +/- 0.6 microg/ml and 11.8 +/- 3.4 microIU/ml, respectively). During the session, insulin tended to be cleared through the dialyser, whereas plasma IGF-I and IGFBP-3 values did not vary significantly. CONCLUSION: Dialysis with the high permeability AN69 membrane did not alter the main blood compounds of the IGF system in well nourished chronic haemodialysis patients, and it is unlikely that the malnutrition frequently observed in such patients would result from alterations of the IGF system during haemodialysis. (+info)
Anuria, omphalocele, and perinatal lethality in mice lacking the CD34-related protein podocalyxin.
Podocalyxin is a CD34-related sialomucin that is expressed at high levels by podocytes, and also by mesothelial cells, vascular endothelia, platelets, and hematopoietic stem cells. To elucidate the function of podocalyxin, we generated podocalyxin-deficient (podxl(-/)-) mice by homologous recombination. Null mice exhibit profound defects in kidney development and die within 24 hours of birth with anuric renal failure. Although podocytes are present in the glomeruli of the podxl(-/)- mice, they fail to form foot processes and slit diaphragms and instead exhibit cell--cell junctional complexes (tight and adherens junctions). The corresponding reduction in permeable, glomerular filtration surface area presumably leads to the observed block in urine production. In addition, podxl(-/)- mice frequently display herniation of the gut (omphalocele), suggesting that podocalyxin may be required for retraction of the gut from the umbilical cord during development. Hematopoietic and vascular endothelial cells develop normally in the podocalyxin-deficient mice, possibly through functional compensation by other sialomucins (such as CD34). Our results provide the first example of an essential role for a sialomucin in development and suggest that defects in podocalyxin could play a role in podocyte dysfunction in renal failure and omphalocele in humans. (+info)
Acid production and base balance in patients on chronic haemodialysis.
Acid generation and elimination processes were compared with total base (bicarbonate plus metabolizable anions) turnover in 18 anuric patients undergoing post-dilutional haemofiltration. The study was conducted during the second haemodialysis session of the week by means of a whole-body base balance technique. The results showed that the mean rates of base loss and base gain during dialysis did not differ (i.e. the dialysis base balance approximated to zero). The concurrent mean rate of intestinal base absorption was 66+/-26 mmol/2 days, as calculated from the whole-body balance of the various inorganic cation and anion differences in a metabolic steady state. This level of intestinal base absorption would be capable of neutralizing the 59+/-21 mmol of H(+) ions/2 days that is contributed by sulphuric acid, which is the most important endogenous acid produced in anuric patients. In spite of the fact that intestinal base supply was adequate to neutralize endogenous acid production completely, our patients presented with pre-dialysis non-carbonic acidosis. The depression of plasma bicarbonate levels could not, however, be explained by increased concentrations of the anion gap and organic acids, which were within normal limits both before and after dialysis. We suggest as an alternative hypothesis that this pre-dialysis acidosis may represent an isotonic dilution acidosis that is induced by the ingestion of base-free tap water in order for plasma tonicity to be protected from the accumulation of impermeant dietary solutes, which takes place during the interdialysis period in anuric patients. (+info)