Relationship of plasmin generation to cardiovascular disease risk factors in elderly men and women. (1/402)

Plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complex (PAP) marks plasmin generation and fibrinolytic balance. We recently observed that elevated levels of PAP predict acute myocardial infarction in the elderly, yet little is known about the correlates of PAP. We measured PAP in 800 elderly subjects who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2 cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study and the Honolulu Heart Program. Median PAP levels did not differ between the Cardiovascular Health Study (6.05+/-1.46 nmol/L) and the Honolulu Heart Program (6.11+/-1.44 nmol/L), and correlates of PAP were similar in both cohorts. In CHS, PAP levels increased with age (r=0. 30), procoagulant factors (eg, factor VIIc, r=0.15), thrombin activity (prothrombin fragment F1+2, r=0.29), and inflammation-sensitive proteins (eg, fibrinogen, r=0.44; factor VIIIc, r=0.37). PAP was associated with increased atherosclerosis as measured by the ankle-arm index (AAI) (P for trend, +info)

Usefulness of D-dimer, blood gas, and respiratory rate measurements for excluding pulmonary embolism. (2/402)

BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of the SimpliRED D-dimer test, arterial oxygen tension, and respiratory rate measurement for excluding pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: Lung scans were performed in 517 consecutive medical inpatients with suspected acute PE over a one year period. Predetermined end points for objectively diagnosed PE in order of precedence were (1) a post mortem diagnosis, (2) a positive pulmonary angiogram, (3) a high probability ventilation perfusion lung scan when the pretest probability was also high, and (4) the unanimous opinion of an adjudication committee. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was diagnosed by standard ultrasound and venography. RESULTS: A total of 40 cases of PE and 37 cases of DVT were objectively diagnosed. The predictive value of a negative SimpliRED test for excluding objectively diagnosed PE was 0.99 (error rate 2/249), that of PaO2 of > or = 80 mm Hg (10.7 kPa) was 0.97 (error rate 5/160), and that of a respiratory rate of < or = 20/min was 0.95 (error rate 14/308). The best combination of findings for excluding PE was a negative SimpliRED test and PaO2 > or = 80 mm Hg, which gave a predictive value of 1.0 (error rate 0/93). The predictive value of a negative SimpliRED test for excluding VTE was 0.98 (error rate 5/249). CONCLUSIONS: All three of these observations are helpful in excluding PE. When any two parameters were normal, PE was very unlikely. In patients with a negative SimpliRED test and PaO2 of > or = 80 mm Hg a lung scan is usually unnecessary. Application of this approach for triage in the preliminary assessment of suspected PE could lead to a reduced rate of false positive diagnoses and considerable resource savings.  (+info)

Tranexamic acid increases peritoneal ultrafiltration volume in patients on CAPD. (3/402)

OBJECTIVE: The preservation of ultrafiltration (UF) capacity is crucial to maintaining long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the antiplasmin agent tranexamic acid (TNA) increases UF volume in CAPD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients on CAPD, 5 with UF loss and 10 without UF loss, were recruited for the study. The effect of TNA was evaluated with respect to changes in UF volume, peritoneal permeability, peritoneal clearance, bradykinin (BK), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) concentration. SETTING: Dialysis unit of the Saiseikai Central Hospital. RESULTS: In patients with UF loss, 2 weeks of treatment with oral TNA produced a significant increase in UF volume in all subjects (5/5).TNA also produced a significant increase in peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine (Cr). However, the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) revealed that TNA had no effect on dialysate/plasma (D/P) Cr, Kt/V, or the protein catabolic rate (PCR).TNA also had no effect on net glucose reabsorption. In contrast, significant decreases in BK and blood tPA concentrations in response to TNA treatment were noted. BK concentration in drainage fluid was also reduced. In the case of patients without UF loss,TNA produced an increase in UF volume in 70% (7/10). However, no differences were found in blood and drainage BK and tPA concentrations between theTNA treatment and nontreatment periods in these patients. A comparison of basal BK and tPA concentration showed that there were no differences in these parameters between patients with UF loss and those without loss of UF. Furthermore,TNA given intraperitoneally to a patient also produced a marked increase in UF volume. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests thatTNA enhances UF volume in patients both with and without UF loss. SinceTNA did not affect peritoneal permeability and glucose reabsorption, the mechanism by which TNA exerts an enhancing action on UF is largely unknown. We speculate that it may be associated with suppression of the BK and/or tPA system, at least in patients with UF loss.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of educational package on management of menorrhagia in primary care: the Anglia menorrhagia education study. (4/402)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an educational package could influence the management of menorrhagia, increase the appropriateness of choice of non-hormonal treatment, and reduce referral rates from primary to secondary care. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in East Anglia. SUBJECTS: 100 practices (348 doctors) in primary care were recruited and randomised to intervention (54) and control (46). INTERVENTIONS: An educational package based on principles of "academic detailing" with independent academics was given in small practice based interactive groups with a visual presentation, a printed evidence based summary, a graphic management flow chart, and a follow up meeting at 6 months. OUTCOME MEASURES: All practices recorded consultation details, treatments offered, and outcomes for women with regular heavy menstrual loss (menorrhagia) over 1 year. RESULTS: 1001 consultation data sheets for menorrhagia were returned. There were significantly fewer referrals (20% v 29%; odds ratio 0. 64; 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.99) and a significantly higher use of tranexamic acid (odds ratio 2.38; 1.61 to 3.49) in the intervention group but no overall difference in norethisterone treatment compared with controls. There were more referrals when tranexamic acid was given with norethisterone than when it was given alone. Those practices reporting fewer than 10 cases showed the highest increase in prescribing of tranexamic acid. CONCLUSIONS: The educational package positively influenced referral for menorrhagia and treatment with appropriate non-hormonal drugs.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of epsilon-aminocaproic acid in patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery. (5/402)

BACKGROUND: Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) is commonly infused during cardiac surgery using empiric dosing schemes. The authors developed a pharmacokinetic model for EACA elimination in surgical patients, tested whether adjustments for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) would improve the model, and then used the model to develop an EACA dosing schedule that would yield nearly constant EACA blood concentrations. METHODS: Consenting patients undergoing elective coronary artery surgery received one of two loading doses of EACA, 30 mg/kg (group I, n = 7) or 100 mg/kg (group II, n = 6) after CPB, or (group III) a 100 mg/kg loading dose before CPB and a 10 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) maintenance infusion continued for 4 h during and after CPB (n = 7). Two patients with renal failure received EACA in the manner of group III. Blood concentrations of EACA, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, were subjected to mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling. RESULTS: The EACA concentration data were best fit by a model with two compartments and corrections for CPB. The elimination rate constant k10 fell from 0.011 before CPB to 0.0006 during CPB, returning to 0.011 after CPB. V1 increased 3.8 l with CPB and remained at that value thereafter. Cl1 varied from 0.08 l/min before CPB to 0.007 l/min during CPB and 0.13 l/min after CPB. Cl2 increased from 0.09 l/min before CPB to 0.14 l/min during and after CPB. Two patients with renal failure demonstrated markedly reduced clearance. Using their model, the authors predict that an EACA loading infusion of 50 mg/kg given over 20 min and a maintenance infusion of 25 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) would maintain a nearly constant target concentration of 260 microg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: EACA clearance declines and volume of distribution increases during CPB. The authors' model predicts that more stable perioperative EACA concentrations would be obtained with a smaller loading dose (50 mg/kg given over 20 min) and a more rapid maintenance infusion (25 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) than are typically employed.  (+info)

The effect of prophylactic epsilon-aminocaproic acid on bleeding, transfusions, platelet function, and fibrinolysis during coronary artery bypass grafting. (6/402)

BACKGROUND: Antifibrinolytic medications administered before skin incision decrease bleeding after cardiac surgery. Numerous case reports indicate thrombus formation with administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (epsilon-ACA). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of epsilon-ACA administered after heparinization but before cardiopulmonary bypass in reducing bleeding and transfusion requirements after primary coronary artery bypass surgery. METHODS: Seventy-four adult patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive 125 mg/kg epsilon-ACA followed by an infusion of 12.5 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) or an equivalent volume of saline. Coagulation studies, thromboelastography, and platelet aggregation tests were performed preoperatively, after bypass, and on the first postoperative day. Mediastinal drainage was recorded during the 24 h after surgery. Homologous blood transfusion triggers were predefined and transfusion amounts were recorded. RESULTS: One patient was excluded for surgical bleeding and five patients were excluded for transfusion against predefined criteria One patient died from a dysrhythmia 2 h postoperatively. Among the remaining 67, the epsilon-ACA group had less mediastinal blood loss during the 24 h after surgery, 529+/-241 ml versus 691+/-286 ml (mean +/- SD), P < 0.05, despite longer cardiopulmonary bypass times and lower platelet counts, P < 0.05. Platelet aggregation was reduced in both groups following cardiopulmonary bypass but did not differ between groups. Homologous blood transfusion was similar between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic administration of epsilon-ACA after heparinization but before cardiopulmonary bypass is of minimal benefit for reducing blood loss postoperatively in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting.  (+info)

The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the conformation of plasminogen. (7/402)

Plasminogen undergoes a large conformational change when it binds 6-aminohexanoate. Using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and native PAGE, we show that hydrostatic pressure brings about the same conformational change. The volume change for this conformational change is -33 mL.mol-1. Binding of ligand and hydrostatic pressure both cause the protein to open up to expose surfaces that had previously been buried in the interior.  (+info)

Relationship of TIMI myocardial perfusion grade to mortality after administration of thrombolytic drugs. (8/402)

BACKGROUND: Although improved epicardial blood flow (as assessed with either TIMI flow grades or TIMI frame count) has been related to reduced mortality after administration of thrombolytic drugs, the relationship of myocardial perfusion (as assessed on the coronary arteriogram) to mortality has not been examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: A new, simple angiographic method, the TIMI myocardial perfusion (TMP) grade, was used to assess the filling and clearance of contrast in the myocardium in 762 patients in the TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) 10B trial, and its relationship to mortality was examined. TMP grade 0 was defined as no apparent tissue-level perfusion (no ground-glass appearance of blush or opacification of the myocardium) in the distribution of the culprit artery; TMP grade 1 indicates presence of myocardial blush but no clearance from the microvasculature (blush or a stain was present on the next injection); TMP grade 2 blush clears slowly (blush is strongly persistent and diminishes minimally or not at all during 3 cardiac cycles of the washout phase); and TMP grade 3 indicates that blush begins to clear during washout (blush is minimally persistent after 3 cardiac cycles of washout). There was a mortality gradient across the TMP grades, with mortality lowest in those patients with TMP grade 3 (2.0%), intermediate in TMP grade 2 (4.4%), and highest in TMP grades 0 and 1 (6.0%; 3-way P=0.05). Even among patients with TIMI grade 3 flow in the epicardial artery, the TMP grades allowed further risk stratification of 30-day mortality: 0.73% for TMP grade 3; 2.9% for TMP grade 2; 5.0% for TMP grade 0 or 1 (P=0.03 for TMP grade 3 versus grades 0, 1, and 2; 3-way P=0.066). TMP grade 3 flow was a multivariate correlate of 30-day mortality (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.02, P=0.054) in a multivariate model that adjusted for the presence of TIMI 3 flow (P=NS), the corrected TIMI frame count (OR 1.02, P=0.06), the presence of an anterior myocardial infarction (OR 2.3, P=0.03), pulse rate on admission (P=NS), female sex (P=NS), and age (OR 1.1, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Impaired perfusion of the myocardium on coronary arteriography by use of the TMP grade is related to a higher risk of mortality after administration of thrombolytic drugs that is independent of flow in the epicardial artery. Patients with both normal epicardial flow (TIMI grade 3 flow) and normal tissue level perfusion (TMP grade 3) have an extremely low risk of mortality.  (+info)