Regulation of AMP deaminase from chicken erythrocytes. A kinetic study of the allosteric interactions.
The allosteric properties of AMP deaminase [EC 220.127.116.11] from chicken erythrocytes have been qualitatively and quantitatively accounted for by the concerted transition theory of Monod et al., on the assumption that this enzyme has different numbers of binding sites for each ligand. Theoretical curves yield a satisfactory fit for all experimental saturation functions with respect to activation by alkali metals and inhibition by Pi, assuming that the numbers of binding sites for AMP, alkali metals, and Pi are 4, 2, and 4, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by concentrations of ATP and GTP below 0.1 and 0.25 mM, respectively, whereas activation of the enzyme was observed at ATP and GTP concentrations above 0.4 and 1.5 mM, respectively. These unusual kinetics with respect to ATP and GTP could be also accounted for by assuming 2 inhibitory and 4 activating sites for each ligand. (+info)
Regulation of chicken erythrocyte AMP deaminase by phytic acid.
AMP deaminase [EC 18.104.22.168] purified from chicken erythrocytes was inhibited by phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate), which is the principal organic phosphate in chicken red cells. Kinetic analysis has indicated that this inhibition is of an allosteric type. The estimated Ki value was within the normal range of phytic acid concentration, suggesting that this compound acts as a physiological effector. Divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ were shown to affect AMP deaminase by potentiating inhibition by lower concentrations of phytic acid, and by relieving the inhibition at higher concentrations of phytic acid. These results suggests that Ca2+ and Mg2+ can modify the inhibition of AMP deaminase by phytic acid in chicken red cells. (+info)
Common variant in AMPD1 gene predicts improved clinical outcome in patients with heart failure.
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to identify gene(s) that may be associated with improved clinical outcome in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The adenosine monophosphate deaminase locus (AMPD1) was selected for study. We hypothesized that inheritance of the mutant AMPD1 allele is associated with increased probability of survival without cardiac transplantation in patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: AMPD1 genotype was determined in 132 patients with advanced CHF and 91 control reference subjects by use of a polymerase chain reaction-based, allele-specific oligonucleotide detection assay. In patients with CHF, those heterozygous (n=20) or homozygous (n=1) for the mutant AMPD1 allele (AMPD1 +/- or -/-, respectively) experienced a significantly longer duration of heart failure symptoms before referral for transplantation evaluation than CHF patients homozygous for the wild-type allele (AMPD1 +/+; n=111; 7.6+/-6.5 versus 3.2+/-3.6 years; P<0.001). The OR of surviving without cardiac transplantation >/=5 years after initial hospitalization for CHF symptoms was 8.6 times greater (95% CI: 3.05, 23.87) in those patients carrying >/=1 mutant AMPD1 allele than in those carrying 2 wild-type AMPD1 +/+ alleles. CONCLUSIONS: After the onset of CHF symptoms, the mutant AMPD1 allele is associated with prolonged probability of survival without cardiac transplantation. The mechanism by which the presence of the mutant AMPD1 allele may modify the clinical phenotype of heart failure remains to be determined. (+info)
AMP deaminase in piglet cardiac myocytes: effect on nucleotide metabolism during ischemia.
The purpose of this study was to examine in situ regulation of AMP deaminase in newborn piglet cardiac myocytes and to determine its role in nucleotide metabolism during ischemia. When a rapid deenergization paradigm was used to assay AMP deaminase, enzyme activity depended on the hormonal and metabolic status of cells just before deenergization. Inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) formation was increased 150% in deenergized myocytes pretreated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; EC50 = 4.7 x 10(-8) M). This effect was 90% blocked with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor staurosporine. In addition, the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol stimulated AMP deaminase activity (EC50 = 1.5 x 10(-8) M), and IMP formation was directly correlated to intracellular cAMP levels (r2 = 0.9). Furthermore, adenosine increased IMP formation, whereas nonrespiring, glycolyzing piglet myocytes had reduced AMP deaminase activity. Pretreatment of perfused piglet hearts with adenosine, but not PMA, before exposure to global ischemia resulted in enhanced conversion of AMP to IMP during the ischemic period. Similar results were obtained in piglet myocytes preincubated with adenosine or PMA before exposure to simulated ischemia. These results may be relevant to the preconditioning phenomenon. (+info)
5'-Nucleotidase as a marker of both general and local inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate measurements of serum and synovial fluid 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) activity as a marker of general and local inflammation in arthritis, and to resolve a contradiction in the literature as to whether or not the activity of 5'N in the synovial fluids of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is raised in comparison with that in the synovial fluids of other arthritis patients. METHODS: Assays for 5'N were carried out in the presence of inhibitors of other phosphatases, AMP deaminase and of 5'N itself. RESULTS: The 5'N activity in the synovial fluid of RA patients was both significantly higher (mean 1.7-fold) and had a greater variance than that in the synovial fluids of other arthritis patients, and the contradiction in the literature was resolved. There was a strong correlation between the 5'N activity in the sera of RA patients and their erythrocyte sedimentation rate. There was no significant correlation between the 5'N in the serum and synovial fluid for the RA patients, in marked contrast to the strong correlation between the two 5'N activities shown by the osteoarthritis patients. The 5'N activity was greater in the synovial fluid than in the serum for virtually all the patients, showing that it was being made locally. CONCLUSIONS: The 5'N activity in the serum (which came mostly from the liver) could be used as a marker of general inflammation, whereas the 5'N in the synovial fluid was mostly produced locally, and could be used as a marker of joint inflammation, particularly for the RA patients. (+info)
Regulation of AMP deaminase by phosphoinositides.
AMP deaminase (AMPD) converts AMP to IMP and is a diverse and highly regulated enzyme that is a key component of the adenylate catabolic pathway. In this report, we identify the high affinity interaction between AMPD and phosphoinositides as a mechanism for regulation of this enzyme. We demonstrate that endogenous rat brain AMPD and the human AMPD3 recombinant enzymes specifically bind inositide-based affinity probes and to mixed lipid micelles that contain phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Moreover, we show that phosphoinositides specifically inhibit AMPD catalytic activity. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is the most potent inhibitor, effecting pure noncompetitive inhibition of the wild type human AMPD3 recombinant enzyme with a K(i) of 110 nM. AMPD activity can be released from membrane fractions by in vitro treatment with neomycin, a phosphoinositide-binding drug. In addition, in vivo modulation of phosphoinositide levels leads to a change in the soluble and membrane-associated pools of AMPD activity. The predicted human AMPD3 sequence contains pleckstrin homology domains and (R/K)X(n)(R/K)XKK sequences, both of which are characterized phosphoinositide-binding motifs. The interaction between AMPD and phosphoinositides may mediate membrane localization of the enzyme and function to modulate catalytic activity in vivo. (+info)
Energy metabolism and lipid peroxidation of human erythrocytes as a function of increased oxidative stress.
To study the influence of oxidative stress on energy metabolism and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes, cells were incubated with increasing concentrations (0.5-10 mM) of hydrogen peroxide for 1 h at 37 degrees C and the main substances of energy metabolism (ATP, AMP, GTP and IMP) and one index of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) were determined by HPLC on cell extracts. Using the same incubation conditions, the activity of AMP-deaminase was also determined. Under nonhaemolysing conditions (at up to 4 mM H2O2), oxidative stress produced, starting from 1 mM H2O2, progressive ATP depletion and a net decrease in the intracellular sum of adenine nucleotides (ATP + ADP + AMP), which were not paralleled by AMP formation. Concomitantly, the IMP level increased by up to 20-fold with respect to the value determined in control erythrocytes, when cells were challenged with the highest nonhaemolysing H2O2 concentration (4 mM). Efflux of inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid towards the extracellular medium was observed. The metabolic imbalance of erythrocytes following oxidative stress was due to a dramatic and unexpected activation of AMP-deaminase (a twofold increase of activity with respect to controls) that was already evident at the lowest dose of H2O2 used; this enzymatic activity increased with increasing H2O2 in the medium, and reached its maximum at 4 mM H2O2-treated erythrocytes (10-fold higher activity than controls). Generation of malondialdehyde was strictly related to the dose of H2O2, being detectable at the lowest H2O2 concentration and increasing without appreciable haemolysis up to 4 mM H2O2. Besides demonstrating a close relationship between lipid peroxidation and haemolysis, these data suggest that glycolytic enzymes are moderately affected by oxygen radical action and strongly indicate, in the change of AMP-deaminase activity, a highly sensitive enzymatic site responsible for a profound modification of erythrocyte energy metabolism during oxidative stress. (+info)
IMP and AMP deaminase in reperfusion injury down-regulates neutrophil recruitment.
We examined gene regulation in murine lungs after hind-limb vessel occlusion and reperfusion. A rapid increase of transcript for the AMP deaminase 3 gene (AMPD3) and its enzymatic activity (EC) generating inosine monophosphate (IMP) were identified with transcripts located in bronchial and alveolar epithelium. AMP deaminase inhibitor decreased IMP levels and significantly enhanced neutrophil recruitment within lung tissue during reperfusion. In addition, IMP inhibited cytokine-initiated neutrophil infiltration in vivo and selectively attenuated neutrophil rolling by 90% in microvessels. We prepared labeled IMP and demonstrated that IMP specifically binds to neutrophils. IMP also stimulated binding of gamma-[(35)S]thio-GTP, suggesting that IMP is a potent regulator of neutrophils. Taken together, these results elucidate a previously unrecognized mechanism that protects tissues from the potentially deleterious consequences of aberrant neutrophil accumulation. Moreover, they are relevant for new therapeutic approaches to regulate neutrophil responses in inflammation and vascular disease. (+info)