Contribution of interleukin 1beta and KM loci to alopecia areata.
Alopecia areata is a common skin disease in which proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta may play a pathogenic role. In this study, we examined the distribution of genotypes of an IL-1beta single base change polymorphism at position +3953 in patients with alopecia areata. The distribution of immunoglobulin kappa light chain (KM) genotypes was similarly examined. The data obtained showed that the IL-1beta and KM loci act cooperatively to significantly increase susceptibility to alopecia areata. (+info)
Successful treatment of alopecia areata-like hair loss with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) in C3H/HeJ mice.
A type of hair loss closely resembling human alopecia areata has been described in C3H/HeJ mice. In order to test the assumed analogy with human alopecia areata, we investigated the efficacy of treatment with the contact allergen squaric acid dibutylester. In 12 C3H/HeJ mice with alopecia areata an allergic contact dermatitis was induced and elicited weekly on one side of the back by topical applications of squaric acid dibutylester. Overt hair regrowth was observed only on the treated side of the back in nine of 12 mice. Histopathologic examination revealed a change in the distribution of the inflammatory infiltrate from a dense perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate around the mid and lower regions of hair follicles in untreated skin to a uniform presence in the upper dermis in treated skin. Immunohistomorphometric studies revealed that treatment with squaric acid dibutylester increased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio from approximately 1:2 in untreated alopecia areata to 1:1 in treated alopecia areata. Additional immunohistochemical investigations showed an aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I, major histocompatibility complex class II and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on keratinocytes of the mid and lower parts of hair follicles in untreated alopecia areata. In successfully treated skin ectopic major histocompatibility complex class I and II expression was clearly reduced, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression showed only minor changes. In conclusion, alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice responded to treatment with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester analogous to human alopecia areata. Moreover, successful treatment changes the aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II in a way similar to that observed in human alopecia areata. These observations support the concept that alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice can be utilized as an appropriate model for the study of human alopecia areata. (+info)
Role of cytotoxic T cells in chronic alopecia areata.
Cytokines play a role in alopecia areata. We used immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies to demonstrate the persistence of pro-inflammatory as well as apoptotic mechanisms in skin biopsies from patients with chronic alopecia areata. In situ hybridization allows the visualization of the distribution of immunocompetent cells in vivo. We studied skin biopsies from 11 untreated alopecia areata patients and two normal controls. In situ hybridization was performed on frozen sections using 35S-radio-labeled riboprobes, specific for IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, INFgamma, and granzyme B mRNA. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using an anti-IL-1beta monoclonal antibody, and a monoclonal antibody directed against the human Fas protein. We demonstrated the presence of cells labeled with IL-1beta, IL-6, INFgamma, and granzyme B antisense probes. Similarly, cells labeled with anti-IL-1beta were found in 10 of 11 cases. The labeled cells were located in the mononuclear peri- and intrafollicular infiltrate. Cells expressing granzyme B were found in close contact with the follicle. Fas positivity was demonstrated in four of four cases at the level of the cytoplasmic membrane of the hair follicle keratinocytes. These results, based on visualizing the labeled cells, demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced by the mononuclear cell infiltrate in close contact with follicles in alopecia areata. Furthermore, they demonstrate for the first time that apoptotic mechanisms involving granzyme B and Fas-Fas ligand pathways may play a major role in the persistence of chronic alopecia areata. (+info)
Heavy metal poisoning in glass worker characterised by severe.
The paper presents the clinical description of the masticatory organ and biochemical assessment of dental tissue in a patient employed in a glassworks for 20 years. During 12 years the patient has suffered baldness ("Alopecia areata") and atypical extensive and non-healing cutaneous lesions. Dental examination revealed changes typical of chronic poisoning by cadmium and bismuth compounds. (+info)
Practical management of hair loss.
OBJECTIVE: To describe an organized diagnostic approach for both nonscarring and scarring alopecias to help family physicians establish an accurate in-office diagnosis. To explain when ancillary laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for hair loss are based on randomized controlled studies, uncontrolled studies, and case series. MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 1998 with the MeSH words alopecia, hair, and alopecia areata. Articles were selected on the basis of experimental design, with priority given to the most current large multicentre controlled studies. Overall global evidence for therapeutic intervention for hair loss is quite strong. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common forms of nonscarring alopecias are androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. Other disorders include trichotillomania, traction alopecia, tinea capitis, and hair shaft abnormalities. Scarring alopecia is caused by trauma, infections, discoid lupus erythematosus, or lichen planus. Key to establishing an accurate diagnosis is a detailed history, including medication use, systemic illnesses, endocrine dysfunction, hair-care practices, and family history. All hair-bearing sites should be examined. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the scalp is useful, particularly to diagnose scarring alopecias. Once a diagnosis has been established, specific therapy can be initiated. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of hair loss is an interesting challenge for family physicians. An organized approach to recognizing characteristic differential features of hair loss disorders is key to diagnosis and management. (+info)
Treatment with an anti-CD44v10-specific antibody inhibits the onset of alopecia areata in C3H/HeJ mice.
A murine CD44v10-neutralizing antibody has been reported to impair delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Because alopecia areata is characterized by a delayed-type hypersensitivity-like T cell mediated immune response, we addressed the question whether an anti-CD44v10-antibody influences the onset of alopecia areata. Therefore, we used the C3H/HeJ mouse model with the induction of alopecia areata in unaffected mice by the grafting of lesional alopecia areata mouse skin. Six grafted mice were injected (intraperitoneally) with anti-CD44v10, six grafted mice with anti-CD44standard, and six with phosphate-buffered saline only. After 11 wk phosphate-buffered saline injected animals on average had developed alopecia areata on 36.8% of their body. The onset of hair loss was slightly delayed and its extent reduced to 17.2% of their body in anti-CD44standard-treated mice. By contrast, five of six anti-CD44v10-treated mice did not show any hair loss and one mouse developed alopecia areata on only 1% of the body. Immunohistochemical examination revealed a marked reduction of perifollicular CD8+ lymphocytes and, to a lesser degree, CD4+ cells as well as a decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex class I on hair follicle epithelium in anti-CD44v10-treated mice as compared with phosphate-buffered saline or anti-CD44 standard-treated mice. Our data show that anti-CD44v10 is able to inhibit the onset of alopecia areata in C3H/HeJ mice. This might be accomplished by an anti-CD44v10-triggered impairment of immune cell homing (e.g., CD8+ T cells), resulting in a decrease of their number in target tissues. (+info)
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist allele 2 and familial alopecia areata.
Alopecia areata affects 1%-2% of the population and is hypothesized to be an autoimmune, organ specific T-cell mediated reaction directed against the human hair follicle. It is characterized by loss of hair in patches (alopecia areata) with progression in some individuals to total loss of scalp hair (alopecia totalis) or to loss of all scalp and body hair (alopecia universalis). The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) gene was found to be associated with more severe clinical outcome in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including alopecia areata. The IL-1RN*2 allele was found to be associated with alopecia areata severity in a British case-control study. In this paper, we analyzed alopecia areata probands in a family-based sample (n = 131 parent-offspring trios) to study the association between alleles of the IL-1RN and various phenotypes of alopecia areata. In considering all patients with any form of alopecia areata, no association was found with IL-1RN. IL-1RN*2 allele was not associated with alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis. A borderline association was observed between IL-1RN and patchy alopecia areata but it was not statistically significant (p =0.06). We also observed an association between IL1-RN*1 allele and patchy alopecia areata (p =0.045). (+info)
Melanocyte-associated T cell epitopes can function as autoantigens for transfer of alopecia areata to human scalp explants on Prkdc(scid) mice.
Alopecia areata is a tissue restricted autoimmune condition affecting the hair follicle, resulting in hair loss. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the autoantigen of alopecia areata is melanocyte associated. Potential autoantigens were tested in the human scalp explant/Prkd(scid) CB-17 mouse transfer system. Scalp T cells from lesional (bald) alopecia areata scalp were cultured with antigen-presenting cells, and antigen, along with interleukin-2. The T cells were then injected into autologous lesional scalp grafts on SCID mice, and hair regrowth was measured. Hair follicle homogenate was used as an autoantigen control. T cells cultured with melanoma homogenate induced statistically significant reduction in hair growth (p <0.01 by ANOVA). HLA-A2-restricted melanocyte peptide epitopes were then tested with lesional scalp T cells from HLA-A2-positive alopecia areata patients. Melanocyte-peptide-activated T cells significantly reduced the number of hairs regrowing in two experiments with six patients (p <0.001 by ANOVA). Injected scalp grafts showed histologic and immunochemical changes of alopecia areata. The most consistent peptide autoantigens were the Gp100-derived G9-209 and G9-280 peptides, as well as MART-1 (27-35). Melanocyte peptide epitopes can function as autoantigens for alopecia areata. Multiple peptides were recognized, suggesting epitope spreading. (+info)