The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes.
Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography. (+info)
Utilization of exogenous purine compounds in Bacillus cereus. Translocation of the ribose moiety of inosine.
Intact cells of Bacillus cereus catalyze the breakdown of exogenous AMP to hypoxanthine and ribose 1-phosphate through the successive action of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and inosine phosphorylase. Inosine hydrolase was not detectable, even in crude extracts. Inosine phosphorylase causes a "translocation" of the ribose moiety (as ribose 1-phosphate) inside the cell, while hypoxanthine remains external. Even though the equilibrium of the phosphorolytic reaction favors nucleoside synthesis, exogenous inosine (as well as adenosine and AMP) is almost quantitatively transformed into external hypoxanthine, since ribose 1-phosphate is readily metabolized inside the cell. Most likely, the translocated ribose 1-phosphate enters the sugar phosphate shunt, via its prior conversion into ribose 5-phosphate, thus supplying the energy required for the subsequent uptake of hypoxanthine in B. cereus. (+info)
Fluorescence changes of a label attached near the myosin active site on nucleotide binding in rat skeletal muscle fibres.
1. Trinitrophenyl AMP (TNP-AMP) in the concentration range 10-300 microM induced an increase in fluorescence intensity at around 530 nm in skinned skeletal muscle fibres freshly obtained from rat psoas muscle. 2. The fluorescence intensity of the fibres depended on TNP-AMP concentration up to approximately 200 microM. The Kd of TNP-AMP binding to the muscle fibres was 38.0 +/- 8.4 microM (mean +/- s.d., n = 4 measurements) in three fibres. TNP-AMP fluorescence was readily washed out. 3. Various nucleotides affected the fluorescence of the fibres incubated in 20 microM TNP-AMP. MgATP (1 mM) and caged ATP (5 mM) reduced the fluorescence in 20 microM TNP-AMP by more than 40 % of the value measured in the absence of nucleotide. 4. When the fibres were stretched to almost no filament overlap, the extent of the quenching of the TNP-AMP (20 microM) fluorescence due to ATP binding was reduced by 14 %. This might be explained by assuming that the association of the thin filament affected the TNP-AMP fluorescence in muscle fibres. 5. The distance between the active site and the specific site for TNP was measured by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between N-methylanthraniloyl-ATP (Mant-ATP) bound to the active site and the TNP-AMP bound to the TNP-specific site in muscle fibres. The results showed that the distance between the two may be less than 2 nm. 6. It may be concluded that the fluorescence intensity at 530 nm in skinned muscle fibres in low concentrations of TNP-AMP changes directly reflecting the conformational state of the nucleotide-binding region that is determined by the binding of nucleotides. (+info)
Self-regulated polymerization of the actin-related protein Arp1.
The actin-related protein Arp1 (or centractin, actin RPV) is the major subunit of dynactin, a key component of the cytoplasmic dynein motor machinery   . Of the ubiquitously expressed members of the Arp superfamily, Arp1 is most similar to conventional actin    and, on the basis of conserved sequence features, is predicted to bind ATP and possibly polymerize. In vivo, all cytosolic Arp1 sediments at 20S  suggesting that it assembles into oligomers, most likely dynactin - a multiprotein complex known to contain eight or nine Arp1 monomers in a 37 nm filament . The uniform length of Arp1 polymers suggests a novel assembly mechanism that may be governed by a 'ruler' activity. In dynactin, the Arp1 filament is bounded by actin-capping protein at one end and a heterotetrameric protein complex containing the p62 subunit (D.M. Eckley, S.R. Gill, J.B.B., J.E. Heuser, T.A.S., unpublished observations) at the other . In the present study, we analyzed the behavior of highly purified, native Arp1. Arp1 was found to polymerize rapidly into short filaments that were similar, but not identical, in length to those in dynactin. With time, these filaments appeared to anneal to form longer assemblies but never attained the length of conventional actin filaments. (+info)
Effect of zinc on adenine nucleotide pools in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus.
The adenylic acid systems of Aspergillus parasiticus were studied in zinc-replete and zinc-deficient media. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels of the fungus were high during exponential phase and low during stationary phase in zinc-replete cultures. On the other hand, the levels of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were low during exponential phase of growth and high during stationary phase. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels during exponential phase may indicate higher primary metabolic activity of the fungus. On the other hand, high adenosine 5'-monophosphate levels during stationary phase may inhibit lipid formation and may enhance aflatoxin levels. The inorganic phosphorus content was low in a zinc-replete medium throughout the growth period, thereby favoring aflatoxin biosynthesis. The energy charge during the exponential phase was high but low during the stationary phase. In general the energy charge values were lower because of high adenosine 5'-monophosphate content. (+info)
Common variant in AMPD1 gene predicts improved clinical outcome in patients with heart failure.
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to identify gene(s) that may be associated with improved clinical outcome in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The adenosine monophosphate deaminase locus (AMPD1) was selected for study. We hypothesized that inheritance of the mutant AMPD1 allele is associated with increased probability of survival without cardiac transplantation in patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: AMPD1 genotype was determined in 132 patients with advanced CHF and 91 control reference subjects by use of a polymerase chain reaction-based, allele-specific oligonucleotide detection assay. In patients with CHF, those heterozygous (n=20) or homozygous (n=1) for the mutant AMPD1 allele (AMPD1 +/- or -/-, respectively) experienced a significantly longer duration of heart failure symptoms before referral for transplantation evaluation than CHF patients homozygous for the wild-type allele (AMPD1 +/+; n=111; 7.6+/-6.5 versus 3.2+/-3.6 years; P<0.001). The OR of surviving without cardiac transplantation >/=5 years after initial hospitalization for CHF symptoms was 8.6 times greater (95% CI: 3.05, 23.87) in those patients carrying >/=1 mutant AMPD1 allele than in those carrying 2 wild-type AMPD1 +/+ alleles. CONCLUSIONS: After the onset of CHF symptoms, the mutant AMPD1 allele is associated with prolonged probability of survival without cardiac transplantation. The mechanism by which the presence of the mutant AMPD1 allele may modify the clinical phenotype of heart failure remains to be determined. (+info)
Human liver glycogen phosphorylase. Kinetic properties and assay in biopsy specimens.
1. The two forms of glycogen phosphorylase were purified from human liver, and some kinetic properties were examined in the direction of glycogen synthesis. The b form has a limited catalytic capacity, resembling that of the rabbit liver enzyme. It is characterized by a low affinity for glucose 1-phosphate, which is unaffected by AMP, and a low V, which becomes equal to that of the a form in the presence of the nucleotide. Lyotropic anions stimulate phosphorylase b and inhibit phosphorylase a by modifying the affinity for glucose 1-phosphate. Both enzyme forms are easily saturated with glycogen. 2. These kinetic properties have allowed us to design a simple assay method for total (a + b) phosphorylase in human liver. It requires only 0.5 mg of tissue, and its average efficiency is 90% when the enzyme is predominantly in the b form. 3. The assay of total phosphorylase allows the unequivocal diagnosis of hepatic glycogen-storage disease caused by phosphorylase deficiency. One patient with a complete deficiency is reported. 4. The assay of human liver phosphorylase a is based on the preferential inhibition of the b form by caffeine. The a form displays the same activity when measured by either of the two assays. (+info)
Metabolism of methionine and biosynthesis of caffeine in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.).
1. Caffeine biosynthesis was studied by following the incorporation of 14C into the products of L-[Me-14C]methionine metabolism in tea shoot tips. 2. After administration of a 'pulse' of L-[Me-14C]methionine, almost all of the L-[Me-14C]methionine supplied disappeared within 1 h, and 14C-labelled caffeine synthesis increased throughout the experimental periods, whereas the radioactivities of an unknown compound and theobromine were highest at 3 h after the uptake of L-[Me-14C]methionine, followed by a steady decrease. There was also slight incorporation of the label into 7-methylxanthine, serine, glutamate and aspartate, disappearing by 36 h after the absorption of L-[Me-14C]methionine. 3. The radioactivities of nucleic acids derived from L-[Me-14C]methionine increased rapidly during the first 12 h incubation period and then decreased steadily. Sedimentation analysis of nucleic acids by sucrose-gradient centrifugation showed that methylation of nucleic acids in tea shoot tips occurred mainly in the tRNA fraction. The main product among the methylated bases in tea shoot tips was identified as 1-methyladenine. 4. The results indicated that the purine ring in caffeine is derived from the purine nucleotides in the nucleotide pool rather than in nucleic acids. A metabolic scheme to show the production of caffeine and related methylxanthines from the nucleotides in tea plants is discussed. (+info)