Progress in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is dependent on a greater understanding of the mechanisms of coronary plaque progression. Autopsy studies have characterized a subgroup of high-risk, or vulnerable, plaques that result in acute coronary syndromes or sudden cardiac death. These angiographically modest plaques share certain pathologic characteristics: a thin, fibrous cap, lipid-rich core, and macrophage activity. Diagnostic techniques for vulnerable-plaque detection, including serologic markers and noninvasive and invasive techniques, are needed. Recent advances in intravascular imaging have significantly improved the ability to detect high-risk, or vulnerable, plaque in vivo by using various features of plaque vulnerability as methods of identification. The characteristic anatomy of a thin, fibrous cap overlying a lipid pool has promoted high-resolution imaging, such as intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and intracoronary magnetic resonance. The lipid-rich core is identifiable by angioscopically detected color changes on the plaque surface or by its unique absorption of energy, or "Raman shift," of its cholesterol core, driving coronary spectroscopy. Finally, temperature heterogeneity arising at foci of plaque inflammation has prompted the development of intracoronary thermography. In this review, we will discuss these techniques, their relative advantages and limitations, and their potential clinical application. (+info)
(2/2999) Choroidal neovascularization characteristics and its size in optical coherence tomography.
The classification, size and activity of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) were compared with those obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA) and Indocyanine green angiography (ICG). This study included 32 patients (32 eyes) diagnosed as having CNV. The etiology of CNV was found to be age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or non-AMD. Patients were studied retrospectively by FA, ICG, and OCT. Of the 13 eyes with AMD, the boundary of the lesion could not be defined using FA in 7 patients. Among the 7 poorly defined CNV cases by FA, the identification of the boundary was possible in one case by OCT. The mean diameter of the classic well-defined lesions was 3500 +/- 421 microm by FA, 2624 +/- 1044 microm by ICG, and 1927 +/- 1272 microm by OCT. The size of the CNV by OCT was always smaller than by FA or ICG. Of the 19 eyes with Non-AMD, the boundary of the lesion could not be defined by FA in 5 patients. Among the 5 poorly defined cases by FA, the identification of the boundary was possible in 3 cases by OCT. The mean diameter of the well-defined CNV lesions was 2153 +/- 759 microm by FA, 1929 +/- 673 microm by ICG, and 1322 +/- 566 microm by OCT. Retinal thickness, which represents retinal edema, was found to be proportional to lesion size, although the relationship was not statistically significant. Regardless of CNV type, FA, ICG and OCT used in combination increase the specificity of diagnosis if their findings are compared. (+info)
(3/2999) Optical imaging of the cervix.
Recent advances in fiber optics, sources and detectors, imaging, and computer-controlled instrumentation have stimulated a period of unprecedented growth in the development of photonics technologies for a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic clinical applications. These include the application of quantitative optical spectroscopy and imaging for the detection of precancerous lesions in the uterine cervix, a topic of interest at the Second International Conference on Cervical Cancer, which was held April 11-14, 2002. Investigators have applied the Littenberg method of emerging technology assessment to new optical methods used to detect cervical neoplasia. Currently, such technologies as fluorescence spectroscopy (the combination of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy), tri-modal spectroscopy, and light-scattering spectroscopy that probe the spectral characteristics of tissue are being investigated. Optical technologies that create images of subcellular structure without biopsy subsequent to pathology that currently are under investigation include in vivo confocal imaging and optical coherence tomography. Numerous small studies have demonstrated the potential of these optical technologies. What remains to be elucidated are the fundamental biophysical origins of variations in remitted optical signals between normal and dysplastic tissue. Large multicenter randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the detection and imaging capabilities of optical technology. Furthermore, the development of contrast agents that could boost detection with these technologies is needed, and basic biologic characterization of signals should be pursued. Applying the Littenberg assessment will help ensure that superior, not simply alternative, technologies are implemented. (+info)
(4/2999) Optical coherence tomography disc assessment in optic nerves with peripapillary atrophy.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to determine the optic disc margin automatically. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the automatic OCT optic nerve head measurements in the presence of peripapillary atrophy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study. Thirty-one subjects with peripapillary atrophy underwent optic nerve head scanning with OCT version 3. Nineteen of the eyes were classified clinically as having glaucoma, nine had suspected glaucoma, and three were normal. Automatic OCT results were compared with manual tracing results. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between most OCT optic nerve head automated and manual disc assessment parameters; however, good agreement was found between the two methods for all parameters (intraclass correlation, 0.71 to 0.94). Areas under receiver operator characteristics curves for clinical status were similar for all parameters with both methods. CONCLUSION: Automated OCT optic nerve head analysis may be used in the clinical setting in the presence of peripapillary atrophy; however, caution should be used when comparing individual results with population-derived optic nerve head results. (+info)
(5/2999) Delayed regeneration of foveal cone photopigments in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease at the convalescent stage.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the physiological characteristics of the macula in patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease during the convalescent stage with specific reference to the kinetics of foveal cone photopigment regeneration. METHODS: Six eyes of three patients at the convalescent stage of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease were studied. All the eyes had best corrected visual acuity of 1.0 or better and had had no recurrence of inflammation for at least 12 months after the last episode. Foveal cone densitometry (FCD), focal macular electroretinograms, color vision tests, two-color perimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed. RESULTS: No regeneration of cone photopigments was detected within the 7-minute testing time by FCD in all eyes at the first examination after the last episode. However, the other functional tests were normal, and the OCT-determined macular morphology was also normal. The regeneration kinetics of the foveal cone photopigment improved in three of six eyes at 36, 37, and 19 months after the last episode, whereas the other three remained delayed at 18, 18, and 49 months. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a disorder of the foveal cone photopigment regeneration, and its recovery, requires a significantly longer time than that of other macular functions in some patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. (+info)
(6/2999) Secondary retinal changes associated with choroidal naevi and melanomas documented by optical coherence tomography.
AIMS: To establish the characteristics of secondary retinal changes associated with the presence of choroidal melanomas and choroidal naevi as documented by optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Twenty patients with untreated choroidal melanoma and 40 patients with presumed choroidal naevi managed by regular observation were included in the study. OCT scans across the surface of the tumour and surrounding tissue were acquired for all participants. The appearance of retinal tissue on the OCT scans was considered to be abnormal if it did not display the well defined band structure characteristic of normal tissue on OCT scans. RESULTS: Serous retinal detachments were observed in all patients with choroidal melanoma and 18 out of 20 also had abnormal retinal structure or intra-retinal splitting in the tissue overlying the tumour. Out of the 40 patients with presumed choroidal naevi, 12 had serous detachments and three had either abnormal retinal structure or intra-retinal splitting overlying the lesion. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary retinal changes associated with choroidal lesions can be documented by OCT. These changes were observed in most patients with choroidal melanoma included in the study group but were far less prevalent in the patients with presumed choroidal naevi. OCT is also able to identify the presence of small serous detachments before they become clinically visible. Follow up of these patients is required to determine whether the OCT results may be of use in the differential diagnosis of small choroidal lesions. (+info)
(7/2999) Onset of pulsatile pressure causes transiently increased filtration through artery wall.
Convective fluid motion through artery walls aids in the transvascular transport of macromolecules. Although many measurements of convective filtration have been reported, they were all obtained under constant transmural pressure. However, arterial pressure in vivo is pulsatile. Therefore, experiments were designed to compare filtration under steady and pulsatile pressure conditions. Rabbit carotid arteries were cannulated and excised from male New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized with pentobarbitol sodium (30 mg/kg i.v. administered). Hydraulic conductance was measured in cannulated excised rabbit carotid arteries at steady pressure. Next, pulsatile pressure trains were applied within the same vessels, and, simultaneously, arterial distension was monitored using Optical coherence tomography (OCT). For each pulse train, the volume of fluid lost through filtration was measured (subtracting volume change due to residual distension) and compared with that predicted from steady pressure measurements. At 60- and 80-mmHg baseline pressures, the experimental filtration volumes were significantly increased compared with those predicted for steady pressure (P < 0.05). OCT demonstrated that the excess fluid volume loss was significantly greater than the volume that would be lost through residual distension (P < 0.05). After 30 s, the magnitude of the excess of fluid loss was reduced. These results suggest that sudden onset of pulsatile pressure may cause changes in arterial interstitial hydration. (+info)
(8/2999) Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study.
PURPOSE: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of moderate visual disability in persons of working age in the United States. The pathogenesis of DME is poorly understood. In this study, the effect of retinal hypoxia in the development and maintenance of DME was investigated. METHODS: Five patients with chronic DME despite at least one focal laser photocoagulation treatment (nine eyes) received 4 L/min of inspired oxygen by nasal cannula for 3 months. Best corrected visual acuity (VA) and retinal thickness, assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), were measured at baseline, during 3 months of oxygen treatment, and for 3 months after stopping oxygen. RESULTS: After 3 months of oxygen therapy, nine of nine eyes with DME at baseline showed a reduction in thickness of the center of the macula. Foveal thickness (FTH) above the normal range was reduced by an average of 43.5% (range, 14%-100%), excess foveolar thickness (CEN) was reduced by an average of 42.1% (range, 13%-100%), and excess macular volume was reduced by an average of 54% (range, 35%-100%). Statistical analyses suggested that these changes were unlikely to be due to chance (P = 0.0077 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Three eyes showed improvement in VA by at least 2 lines, one by slightly less than 2 lines, and five eyes showed no change. Three months after discontinuation of oxygen, five of the nine eyes showed increased thickening of the macula compared with when oxygen was discontinued. CONCLUSIONS: Supplemental inspired oxygen may decrease macular thickness due to DME, suggesting that retinal hypoxia is involved in the development and maintenance of DME. (+info)