(17/341) Echocardiographical demonstration of a progressively expanding left ventricular aneurysm preceded by endomyocardial tearing.
A 70-year-old woman with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) had a narrow necked left ventricular (LV) aneurysm and pericardial effusion. Although there had been no obvious sign of pseudoaneurysm at the first operation on the 13th day after onset, LV volume increased so dramatically that dyspnea on mild exertion was induced only 2 months after the onset of AMI. She underwent Dor's operation for the expanded LV aneurysm. The histological findings of the resected tissue, which were fibrotic epicardial lesion with small myocyte islands, indicated a true aneurysm. The ultrasound manifestation of a narrow necked aneurysm with abrupt thinning of the myocardium at the hinge point may be a valuable predictor of free wall rupture in the early phase and severely progressive LV remodeling in the late phase. Such aneurysms need to be considered as high risk. (+info)
(18/341) Review article: current endoscopic therapeutic options in the management of variceal bleeding.
Variceal bleeding is a frequent and life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. The first episode of variceal bleeding is not only associated with a high mortality, but also with a high recurrence rate in those who survive. Therefore, many studies and randomized clinical trials have focused on different therapeutic strategies aiming to prevent the first episode of variceal bleeding (primary prophylaxis), to control haemorrhage during the acute bleeding episode (emergency treatment), and to prevent re-bleeding (secondary prophylaxis). These strategies involve pharmacological, endoscopic, surgical, and interventional radiological modalities. This review concentrates on the clinical aspects of the endoscopic modalities used to treat oesophageal variceal haemorrhage, including variceal injection sclerotherapy, variceal band ligation, and the use of tissue adhesives (glue) and their substitutes. We also draw conclusions from the available literature regarding the use of endoscopic modalities in primary prophylaxis, emergency treatment, and secondary prophylaxis of variceal re-bleeding. The management of gastric varices and variceal bleeding during pregnancy is also addressed. (+info)
(19/341) Office management of minor wounds.
OBJECTIVE: To review office interventions for minor wounds not requiring sutures, such as abrasions, bites, and lacerations. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most information on minor wound management comes from descriptive studies. Few comparative studies examine the effectiveness of topical antisepsis for minor wounds. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that tissue adhesives produce short- and long-term cosmetic results equivalent to those achieved with suture materials. MAIN MESSAGE: Sterile saline is the least toxic solution for wound irrigation. Chlorhexidine (2%) and povidone iodine (10%) have been the most investigated antiseptic solutions. Systemic antibiotics are unnecessary for wounds unlikely to be infected. All bite wounds require special attention. Primary closure of bite wounds is indicated in certain circumstances: less than 12-hour-old nonpuncture wounds, uninfected wounds, and low-risk lesions (such as on the face). In spite of their many advantages, skin tapes should be used for low-tension wounds only. The popularity of tissue adhesives has greatly increased. Since the advent of newer products (with increased bonding strength and flexibility), adhesives are used to manage most lacerations except those in areas of high tension (e.g., joints) and on mucosal surfaces. CONCLUSION: Minor wounds not requiring sutures can be managed easily in the office. (+info)
(20/341) Bronchial stump reinforcement in right pneumonectomy with fascia lata and gelatin resorcin formalin (GRF) glue: case report.
We reinforced the bronchial stump with fascia lata and Gelatin Resorcin Formalin (GRF) glue in a right pneumonectomy. This method was found to be simple and useful. We describe our case and the method herein. A 62-year-old woman had a malignant polypoid lesion which completely occluded the introitus of the right main bronchus and deviated to the introitus of the left main bronchus. Right pneumonectomy was done but materials (pleura, pericardium, intercostal muscle, etc.) obtained from the thoracic cavity were insufficient for bronchial stump reinforcement due to severe adhesion caused by prior tuberculosis. Therefore, we reinforced the bronchial stump using the fascia lata and GRF glue. Fascia lata is a superior material for reinforcement in terms of strength and ease of molding, as well as harvesting. GRF glue is a superior adhesive with rapid and strong fixation. We consider this method of reinforcing the bronchial stump with fascia lata and GRF glue to be feasible, in particular, for pneumonectomy or lobectomy without adequate material in the thoracic cavity because of severe adhesion or lesions. (+info)
(21/341) Topical adhesive as a wound dressing for elective abdominal surgery.
The choice of wound dressing after abdominal surgery is not always easy. We describe a simple technique using acyanoacrylate wound adhesive to provide a water resistant, flexible, sealed dressing which is simple to use, requires no nursing time to 'maintain' and is particularly useful in the presence of stomas or open drains. (+info)
(22/341) Embolization of type II endoleaks after aortic stent-graft implantation: technique and immediate results.
PURPOSE: We report the procedural details and immediate results of treatment of type II endoleaks after aortic stent-graft implantation. METHODS: In a consecutive series of patients who had either Vangard (n = 53) or Talent (n = 7) aortic stent-grafts implanted, type II endoleaks were confirmed by means of angiography in 18 patients, with a mean (+/- SD) age of 69 +/- 11 years; 16 patients had Vangard stent-grafts, and two patients had Talent stent-grafts. After superselective catheterization of the feeding vessel, with 3F microcatheters, and liberal injections of vasodilators, embolization was performed with either a mixture of biologic glue and Lipiodol (n = 16) or Microcoils (n = 2). RESULTS: The procedure was performed through the femoral artery in 16 patients and through the brachial artery in the remaining two patients. Overall, superselective catheterization and embolization were successfully undertaken in 17 (94.4%) of 18 patients. In the remaining patient, superselective catheterization proved impossible. This patient was treated with an injection of microparticles completed by means of embolization of biologic glue more proximally in an iliolumbar branch. During follow-up (mean, 13.3 months) after embolization, the aneurysm sac shrank in 13 (72.2%) of 18 patients. A new type II endoleak was diagnosed on helical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in two (11.1%) of 18 patients. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous embolization is a safe and effective technique for treatment of type II endoleaks. However, despite these initially promising results, large long-term follow-up studies will be required to confirm its efficiency. (+info)
(23/341) Relative hypoglycemic effect of insulin suppositories in diabetic beagle dogs: optimization of various concentrations of sodium salicylate and polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether.
The effect of insulin suppositories containing different amounts and concentrations of sodium salicylate (50, 100 mg) and polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether (POELE 1, 3, 4%), respectively, on the plasma glucose concentration of diabetic beagle dogs was investigated after rectal administration. Comparison of the effects of these formulations was made with that produced after subcutaneous insulin injections. Insulin suppositories containing sodium salicylate (50 mg) produced a maximum reduction of plasma glucose concentration (Cmax) of 55 +/- 11%, an area under the curve (AUC) of 252 +/- 59% reduction h; and a relative hypoglycemia (RH) of 49 +/- 12% relative to subcutaneous injection of insulin (4 U/kg). Increasing sodium salicylate to 100 mg/suppository did not improve the hypoglycemic effect of insulin suppositories further. Investigation of the influence of insulin suppositories containing different concentrations of the nonionic surfactant POELE (1, 3, 4%) showed that; the suppositories containing the lowest concentration (1%) produced the highest hypoglycemic effect with a Cmax of 68%, AUC of 332 +/- 67% reduction h, and RH of 55 +/- 11%. Incorporation of sodium salicylate 50mg in insulin suppositories containing 1% POELE did not improve further the effects found with these suppositories. In conclusion, a relative hypoglycemic effect of about 50-55% can be achieved using insulin suppositories containing Witepsol W35 as a base, insulin (5 U/kg), and sodium salicylate (50 mg) or POELE (1%) as rectal absorption enhancers. (+info)
(24/341) Tetracycline delivery from fibrin controls peritoneal infection without measurable systemic antibiotic.
The addition of antibiotics to an adhesive haemostat results in an ideal system for the treatment of a localized infectious disease. Fibrin sealant (FS) is a biocompatible, resorbable, adherent haemostat that can deliver antibiotics. Previous use of fibrin to deliver antibiotics resulted in rapid release and limited bioactivity. We have reported previously that poorly soluble antibiotics significantly retard release from FS, resulting in extended delivery in vitro, and overcome antibiotic-resistant infection. We now report that localized antibiotic delivery from FS controls peritoneal infection without measurable systemic antibiotic. Rats and mice were implanted with preformed FS discs containing tetracycline free-base to evaluate control of peritoneal sepsis and to measure serum tetracycline levels. Infection was initiated with Staphylococcus aureus. Morbidity and mortality were evaluated for 14 days. Serum was isolated from jugular vein blood with subsequent evaluation for antimicrobial activity. Mice prophylactically treated with FS-tetracycline (FS-TET) 500 mg/kg 2 days before infection cleared the S. aureus infection, resulting in 100% survival. Mice treated with FS-TET 500 mg/kg 7 days before infection survived. Mice treated with FS-TET 1750 mg/kg 35 days before infection also survived. Rats treated with FS-TET 500 mg/kg had undetectable serum tetracycline levels, whereas in vitro release of tetracycline from FS-TET pellets in rat serum was readily detected. We conclude that fibrin is an excellent vehicle for extended delivery of low solubility tetracycline. Tetracycline delivered from FS is an appropriate chemotherapy for S. aureus peritonitis. FS-TET controls localized infection without a measurable concentration of systemic tetracycline. (+info)