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(1/309) Central injections of capsaicin cause antidiuresis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in rat hypothalamus and vasopressin release.

Intracerebroventricular injections of capsaicin at 100-500 nmol elicited dose-dependent decreases in urine outflow volume in anesthetized, hydrated rats. The capsaicin (500 nmol)-induced antidiuresis was inhibited by pretreatment with CP96345 (30 nmol, a neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist), but not by that with phenoxybenzamine (20 nmol, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist), timolol (100 nmol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) or atropine (300 nmol, a muscarinic antagonist) into the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON). Intravenous injections of d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (50 microg/kg, a vasopressin-receptor antagonist) completely blocked the antidiuresis. In intra-SON microdialysis experiments, acetylcholine concentration in the perfusate of the capsaicin-injected rats was not different from that of the vehicle-injected rats. These findings suggested that capsaicin stimulated substance P release in the SON and caused the antidiuresis as a result of the increased release of vasopressin into the circulation from the neurohypophysis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in the SON.  (+info)

(2/309) Mitigation of caffeine-induced fetopathy in mice by pretreatment with beta-adrenergic blocking agents.

In a previous experiment, fetopathic effects of caffeine were significantly reduced by pretreatment with propranolol at dosage levels of 2.5 to 10 mg/kg. The present experiments were undertaeken to investigate the relation between time intervals of propranolol pretreatment and its effect on reducing fetopathy. Furthermore, the effect of timolol, another beta-adrenergic blocking agent, on reducing fetopathy was compared with that of propranolol. Propranolol (5 mg/kg) administered 15, 30 or 60 minutes before caffeine treatment significantly reduced the caffeine-induced fetopathy. The optimal effect was found when propranolol was given 30 minutes before caffine. The reduction in fetopathy by timolol pretreatment was comparable to that of propranolol. The results lend support to the hypothesis that the fetopathic effect of caffeine is linked with released catecholamines in material or fetal issues of mice.  (+info)

(3/309) Constitutively active mutants of the beta1-adrenergic receptor.

We provide the first evidence that point mutations can constitutively activate the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR). Leucine 322 of the beta(1)-AR in the C-terminal portion of its third intracellular loop was replaced with seven amino acids (I, T, E, F, C, A and K) differing in their physico-chemical properties. The beta(1)-AR mutants expressed in HEK-293 cells displayed various levels of constitutive activity which could be partially inhibited by some beta-blockers. The results of this study might have interesting implications for future studies aiming at elucidating the activation process of the beta(1)-AR as well as the mechanism of action of beta-blockers.  (+info)

(4/309) Comparison of the intraocular pressure lowering effect of latanoprost and a fixed combination of timolol-pilocarpine eye drops in patients insufficiently controlled with beta adrenergic antagonists. French Latanoprost Study Group, and the Swedish Latanoprost Study Group.

AIMS: To compare the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of latanoprost monotherapy and timolol-pilocarpine in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension with inadequately controlled IOP on topical beta adrenergic antagonists. METHODS: This was a multicentre, randomised, observer masked, 6 week study performed in France and Sweden. 23 centres enrolled 237 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension and an IOP of at least 22 mm Hg on treatment with topical beta adrenergic antagonists, alone or in combination. After a 21 day run in period on timolol 0.5% twice daily, patients were randomised either to latanoprost 0.005% once daily or to a fixed combination of timolol-pilocarpine twice daily. Changes in mean diurnal IOP from the baseline to the 6 week visit were determined with an analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Mean diurnal IOP was statistically significantly decreased from baseline in both groups (p<0.001). Switching to latanoprost treatment reduced mean diurnal IOP by 5.4 (SEM 0.3) mm Hg (ANCOVA -22%) and switching to timolol-pilocarpine treatment reduced mean diurnal IOP by 4.9 (0.4) mm Hg (-20%). Blurred vision, decreased visual acuity, decreased twilight vision, and headache were statistically significantly more frequent in the timolol-pilocarpine group. CONCLUSIONS: Latanoprost monotherapy was at least as effective as fixed combination timolol-pilocarpine twice daily treatment in reducing mean diurnal IOP in patients not adequately controlled on topical beta adrenergic antagonists. Latanoprost was better tolerated than timolol-pilocarpine regarding side effects. These results indicate that a switch to latanoprost monotherapy can be attempted before combination therapy is initiated.  (+info)

(5/309) Effects of topical nipradilol, a beta blocking agent with alpha blocking and nitroglycerin-like activities, on intraocular pressure and aqueous dynamics in humans.

AIMS: To study the effects of topical nipradilol, a non-selective beta blocker with alpha blocking and nitroglycerin-like activities, on intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humour dynamics in normal humans and in patients with ocular hypertension. METHODS: Nipradilol (0.06%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%) was applied to normal volunteers (n = 12) to test for IOP lowering effects. In a second group of normal volunteers (n = 11), nipradilol (0.125% and 0.25%) and timolol (0. 5%) were compared for IOP lowering effects. After a single administration of 0.25% nipradilol, IOP, flare intensity in the anterior chamber, aqueous flow, uveoscleral outflow, tonographic outflow facility, and episcleral venous pressure were either directly measured or mathematically calculated. Topical nipradilol (0.25%) was administered to 24 patients with ocular hypertension twice daily for 8 weeks. RESULTS: Administration of 0.25% nipradilol decreased IOP with a maximum reduction of 4.2 mm Hg lasting 12 hours. A single instillation of both 0.25% nipradilol and 0.5% timolol reduced the IOP in normotensive human subjects to the same degree. A single instillation of 0.25% nipradilol decreased the aqueous flow rate in the treated eye by 20%. Nipradilol produced no significant effect in tonographic outflow facility or episcleral venous pressure, but uveoscleral outflow was increased. In patients with ocular hypertension, twice daily instillation of 0.25% nipradilol decreased IOP without tachyphylaxis for the 8 week test period. CONCLUSION: Topical nipradilol (0.25%) reduced IOP by decreasing the aqueous flow rate and probably also by increasing uveoscleral outflow. Nipradilol should be further investigated as a new antiglaucoma drug.  (+info)

(6/309) Meal-induced insulin secretion in dogs is mediated by both branches of the autonomic nervous system.

We investigated the relationship between autonomic activity to the pancreas and insulin secretion in chronically catheterized dogs when food was shown, during eating, and during the early absorptive period. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) output, pancreatic norepinephrine spillover (PNESO), and arterial epinephrine (Epi) were measured as indexes for parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous activity to the pancreas and for adrenal medullary activity, respectively. The relation between autonomic activity and insulin secretion was confirmed by autonomic blockade. Showing food to dogs initiated a transient increase in insulin secretion without changing PP output or PNESO. Epi did increase, suggesting beta(2)-adrenergic mediation, which was confirmed by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Eating initiated a second transient insulin response, which was only totally abolished by combined muscarinic and beta-adrenoceptor blockade. During absorption, insulin increased to a plateau. PP output showed the same pattern, suggesting parasympathetic mediation. PNESO decreased by 50%, suggesting withdrawal of inhibitory sympathetic neural tone. We conclude that 1) the insulin response to showing food is mediated by the beta(2)-adrenergic effect of Epi, 2) the insulin response to eating is mediated both by parasympathetic muscarinic stimulation and by the beta(2)-adrenergic effect of Epi, and 3) the insulin response during early absorption is mediated by parasympathetic activation, with possible contribution of withdrawal of sympathetic neural tone.  (+info)

(7/309) Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduces Na(+) influx into cortical synaptosomes by direct interaction with Na(+) channels: comparison with other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists.

Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of glaucoma, is known to be neuroprotective in paradigms of ischaemia/excitotoxicity. In this study, we examined whether betaxolol and other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists interact directly with neurotoxin binding to sites 1 and 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Na(+) channel) in rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. Betaxolol inhibited specific [(3)H]-batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate ([(3)H]-BTX-B) binding to neurotoxin site 2 in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 9.8 microM. Comparison of all the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists tested revealed a potency order of propranolol>betaxolol approximately levobetaxolol>levobunolol approximately carteolol>/=timolol>atenolol. None of the drugs caused a significant inhibition of [(3)H]-saxitoxin binding to neurotoxin receptor site 1, even at concentrations as high as 250 microM. Saturation experiments showed that betaxolol increased the K(D) of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding but had no effect on the B(max). The association kinetics of [(3)H]-BTX-B were unaffected by betaxolol, but the drug significantly accelerated the dissociation rate of the radioligand. These findings argue for a competitive, indirect, allosteric mode of inhibition of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding by betaxolol. Betaxolol inhibited veratridine-stimulated Na(+) influx in rat cortical synaptosomes with an IC(50) value of 28. 3 microM. Carteolol, levobunolol, timolol and atenolol were significantly less effective than betaxolol at reducing veratridine-evoked Na(+) influx. The ability of betaxolol to interact with neurotoxin site 2 of the Na(+) channel and inhibit Na(+) influx may have a role in its neuroprotective action in paradigms of excitotoxicity/ischaemia and in its therapeutic effect in glaucoma.  (+info)

(8/309) Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients.

AIMS: To evaluate the short term cardiovascular, respiratory, and intraocular pressure (IOP) effects of four glaucoma medications in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. METHODS: 141 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and underwent a full ocular, cardiovascular, and respiratory examination, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and spirometry. They were prescribed one of four topical glaucoma medications and reviewed 3 months later. One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for analysis, performed using analysis of variance and the chi(2) test. RESULTS: Latanoprost had the greatest mean IOP lowering effect in both the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (p = 0.005) and the "presumed" normal tension glaucoma (NTG) groups (p = 0.33), reducing the IOP by 8.9 mm Hg and 4.1 mm Hg respectively. Timolol was associated with lowered pulse rates and reductions in the spirometry measurements. 41% of patients using brimonidine complained of systemic side effects and over 55% of patients using betaxolol complained of ocular irritation. 28% of patients required an alteration in their glaucoma management. CONCLUSIONS: Latanoprost appears to be a useful primary treatment for glaucoma patients, in view of superior IOP control and a low incidence of local and systemic side effects. Timolol causes a reduction in measurements of respiratory function, a concern in view of the potential subclinical reversible airways disease in the elderly glaucoma population. Brimonidine is associated with substantial, unpredictable systemic side effects and betaxolol causes ocular irritation and weak IOP control. Spirometry is advised in all patients receiving topical beta blocker therapy to control their glaucoma.  (+info)