AIM: To study the influence of the course of diabetes, aging, and glycemia on the sorbitol accumulation in diabetic rats. METHODS: Streptozocin (Str) diabetic rats were obtained by Str i.v. (35 mg.kg-1). Glycemia and sorbitol levels from sciatic nerve and lens were measured after 1 d, 2, 5, and 8 months of diabetes. Sorbitol concentrations in serum, heart, diaphragm, small intestine, and kidney after 8 months of diabetes were measured. RESULTS: Diabetic rats after Str injection showed hyperglycemia (> 1.7 g.L-1), hyperphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, and loss of body weight. Sorbitol levels in lens and sciatic nerve increased in normal and diabetic rats; the increase was higher in diabetic rats. No relationship was shown between glycemia and sorbitol levels. An increased sorbitol level after 8 months of diabetes was found in small intestine and kidney. CONCLUSION: The sorbitol levels increased in lens and sciatic nerve with aging and this process was accelerated by diabetes. (+info)
(2/808) Requirement of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) for tumor necrosis factor-induced cytokine expression.
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated by treatment of cells with cytokines and by exposure to environmental stress. The effects of these stimuli on p38 MAP kinase are mediated by the MAP kinase kinases (MKKs) MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6. We have examined the function of the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway by investigating the effect of targeted disruption of the Mkk3 gene. Here we report that Mkk3 gene disruption caused a selective defect in the response of fibroblasts to the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor, including reduced p38 MAP kinase activation and cytokine expression. These data demonstrate that the MKK3 protein kinase is a critical component of a tumor necrosis factor-stimulated signaling pathway that causes increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. (+info)
(3/808) A large outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by an unusual sorbitol-fermenting strain of Escherichia coli O157:H-.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 does not ferment sorbitol, a factor used to differentiate it from other E. coli. From December 1995 to March 1996, 28 children with hemolytic uremic syndrome in Bavaria, Germany, were identified; many had a sorbitol-fermenting (sf) E. coli O157:H- cultured. A case-control study showed a dose-response relationship between sausage consumption and illness. A second case-control study showed a relationship between mortadella and teewurst consumption and illness, particularly during December (mortadella odds ratio [OR], 10.5, P=.004; teewurst OR, 6.2, P=.02). Twelve sf O157:H- were characterized to determine clonality and virulence traits. The strains possessed the Stx2, eae, and EHEC-hlyA genes but were nonhemolytic on blood agar plates. The O157:H- isolates belonged to phage type 88 and had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. This outbreak was caused by sf E. coli O157:H-, which is not detectable by culture on sorbitol MacConkey's agar. Consumption of two sausages, including a raw beef-containing sausage, was statistically related to illness. (+info)
(4/808) SHIP is a negative regulator of growth factor receptor-mediated PKB/Akt activation and myeloid cell survival.
SHIP is an inositol 5' phosphatase that hydrolyzes the PI3'K product PI(3,4,5)P3. We show that SHIP-deficient mice exhibit dramatic chronic hyperplasia of myeloid cells resulting in splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and myeloid infiltration of vital organs. Neutrophils and bone marrow-derived mast cells from SHIP-/- mice are less susceptible to programmed cell death induced by various apoptotic stimuli or by growth factor withdrawal. Engagement of IL3-R and GM-CSF-R in these cells leads to increased and prolonged PI3'K-dependent PI(3,4,5)P3 accumulation and PKB activation. These data indicate that SHIP is a negative regulator of growth factor-mediated PKB activation and myeloid cell survival. (+info)
(5/808) Hypertonicity-induced accumulation of organic osmolytes in papillary interstitial cells.
BACKGROUND: Medullary cells of the concentrating kidney are exposed to high extracellular solute concentrations. It is well established that epithelial cells in this kidney region adapt osmotically to hypertonic stress by accumulating organic osmolytes. Little is known, however, of the adaptive mechanisms of a further medullary cell type, the papillary interstitial cell [renal papillary fibroblast (RPF)]. We therefore compared the responses of primary cultures of RPFs and papillary collecting duct (PCD) cells exposed to hypertonic medium. METHODS: In RPFs and PCD cells, organic osmolytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography; mRNA expression for organic osmolyte transporters [Na+/Cl(-)-dependent betaine transporter (BGT), Na(+)-dependent myo-inositol transporter (SMIT)], and the sorbitol synthetic and degrading enzymes [aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), respectively] was determined by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Exposure to hypertonic medium (600 mOsm/kg by NaCl addition) caused intracellular contents of glycerophosphorylcholine, betaine, myo-inositol, and sorbitol, but not free amino acids, to increase significantly in both RPFs and PCD cells. The rise in intracellular contents of these organic osmolytes was accompanied by enhanced expression of mRNAs coding for BGT, SMIT, and AR in both RPFs and PCD cells. SDH mRNA abundance, however, was unchanged. Nonradioactive in situ hybridization studies on sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, normally concentrating kidneys showed strong expression of BGT, SMIT, and AR mRNAs in interstitial and collecting duct cells of the papilla, whereas expression of SDH mRNA was much weaker in both cell types. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that both RPFs and PCD cells use similar strategies to adapt osmotically to the high interstitial NaCl concentrations characteristic for the inner medulla and papilla of the concentrating kidney. (+info)
(6/808) Oxidative stress-induced destruction of the yeast C-type cyclin Ume3p requires phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and the 26S proteasome.
The yeast UME3 (SRB11/SSN3) gene encodes a C-type cyclin that represses the transcription of the HSP70 family member SSA1. To relieve this repression, Ume3p is rapidly destroyed in cells exposed to elevated temperatures. This report demonstrates that Ume3p levels are also reduced in cultures subjected to ethanol shock, oxidative stress, or carbon starvation or during growth on nonfermentable carbons. Of the three elements (RXXL, PEST, and cyclin box) previously shown to be required for heat-induced Ume3p destruction, only the cyclin box regulates Ume3p degradation in response to these stressors. The one exception observed was growth on nonfermentable carbons, which requires the PEST region. These findings indicate that yeast cells contain multiple, independent pathways that mediate stress-induced Ume3p degradation. Ume3p destruction in response to oxidative stress, but not to ethanol treatment, requires DOA4 and UMP1, two factors required for 26S proteasome activity. This result for the first time implicates ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in C-type cyclin regulation. Similarly, the presence of a membrane stabilizer (sorbitol) or the loss of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC1) protects Ume3p from oxidative-stress-induced degradation. Finally, a ume3 null allele suppresses the growth defect of plc1 mutants in response to either elevated temperature or the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that the growth defects observed in plc1 mutants are due to the failure to downregulate Ume3p. Taken together, these findings support a model in which Plc1p mediates an oxidative-stress signal from the plasma membrane that triggers Ume3p destruction through a Doa4p-dependent mechanism. (+info)
(7/808) Potassium ion efflux induced by cationic compounds in yeast.
Potassium efflux in yeast induced by several cationic compounds showed different characteristics. All of the observed efflux required glucose as substrate at the concentrations used. For most of them, the phenomenon required binding of the cationic compound to the cell surface and increased with the negative cell surface charge, and for all the compounds tested, it depended on a metabolizable substrate. Efflux induced with terbium chloride appeared more likely due to the function of a K+/H+ antiporter. With DEAE-dextran and dihydrostreptomycin, potassium efflux was dependent on the cell potassium content and was also sensitive to osmotic changes of the medium. DEAE-dextran-provoked efflux was not due to cell disruption. Dihydrostreptomycin seemed to activate a potassium efflux system which could not be studied in isolation, but its inhibition of potassium uptake may also be involved. Except for cells treated with ethidium bromide, no appreciable cell disruption was observed. The potassium efflux observed appears to be a membrane phenomenon reversible after washing with magnesium chloride. (+info)
(8/808) Different signalling pathways contribute to the control of GPD1 gene expression by osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Yeast cells respond to a shift to higher osmolarity by increasing the cellular content of the osmolyte glycerol. This response is accompanied by a stimulation of the expression of genes encoding enzymes in the glycerol production pathway. In this study the osmotic induction of one of those genes, GPD1, which encodes glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was monitored in time course experiments. The response is independent of the osmolyte and consists of four apparent phases: a lag phase, an initial induction phase, a feedback phase and a sustained long-term induction. Osmotic shock with progressively higher osmolyte concentrations caused a prolonged lag phase. Deletion of HOG1, which encodes the terminal protein kinase of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response pathway, led to an even longer lag phase and drastically lower basal and induced GPD1 mRNA levels. However, the induction was only moderately diminished. Overstimulation of Hog1p by deletion of the genes for the protein phosphatases PTP2 and PTP3 led to higher basal and induced mRNA levels and a shorter lag phase. The protein phosphatase calcineurin, which mediates salt-induced expression of some genes, does not appear to contribute to the control of GPD1 expression. Although GPD1 expression has so far not been reported to be controlled by a general stress response mechanism, heat-shock induction of the GPD1 mRNA level was observed. However, unregulated protein kinase A activity, which strongly affects the general stress response, only marginally altered the mRNA level of GPD1. The osmotic stimulation of GPD1 expression does not seem to be mediated by derepression, since deletion of the SSN6 gene, which encodes a general repressor, did not significantly alter the induction profile. A hypoosmotic shock led to a transient 10-fold drop of the GPD1 mRNA level. Neither the HOG nor the protein kinase C pathway, which is stimulated by a decrease in external osmolarity, is involved in this effect. It was concluded that osmotic regulation of GPD1 expression is the result of an interplay between different signalling pathways, some of which remain to be identified. (+info)