Gonococcal infection in caesarean delivered babies is very rare and is usually limited to ophthalmia neonatorum. The mother had rupture of membranes 14 hours before the caesarean section. The infection was most likely introduced by the fetal scalp electrode probes applied 2 hours before delivery. This is the first reported of a neonatal gonococcal abscess in a caesarean delivered infant. (+info)
(2/144) The epidemiology of head lice and scabies in the UK.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the prevalence of both scabies and head lice is increasing and also that both conditions are becoming refractory to pesticide treatment. Using information obtained from the Office of National Statistics, Royal College of General Practitioners Weekly Returns Service, Department of Health, local surveys of school children from Bristol and drug sales of insecticides, we have confirmed that there has been a rise in the prevalence of both conditions. We have shown that scabies is significantly more prevalent in urbanized areas (P < 0.00001), north of the country (P < 0.000001), in children and women (P < 0.000001) and commoner in the winter compared to the summer. Scabies was also shown to have a cyclical rise in incidence roughly every 20 years. Head lice were shown to be significantly more prevalent in children and mothers (P < 0.000001) though both conditions were seen in all age groups. Head lice were also less common during the summer. Host behaviour patterns, asymptomatic carriage, drug resistance and tourism from countries or districts with a higher incidence may be important factors in the currently high prevalence of both scabies and head lice. (+info)
(3/144) Infestation status of head louse and treatment with lindane shampoo in children of primary school and kindergarten in Chinju-shi, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea.
The infestation status of head louse among children attending primary schools and kindergartens in Chinju-shi, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea, was investigated between June and July 1999. Out of 2,288 children examined, 3.9% of boys (48/1,242) and 23.5% of girls (246/1,046) were infested with nits or adult/nymphs of lice. The effectiveness of lindane shampoo (1% gamma benzene hexachloride solution) was evaluated after one or two time applications to all the children infested. The negative conversion rate of pediculosis was 93.5%. Effective control measures are needed to control and prevent such ectoparasite infestation amongst children. (+info)
(4/144) The role of community pharmacists in prescribing medication for the treatment of head lice.
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to discover whether the use of community pharmacy, rather than general practice, as the first port of call for suspected head lice infestation would represent an acceptable, effective and cost-reducing means of management in the community. METHODS: A before-and-after study was carried out of a new system of care delivery. Between September and November 1997, pharmacists in Nottingham City West recorded details of all patients attending with prescriptions for head lice treatment or those purchasing over-the-counter medication. The new system of care delivery began in January 1998, during which, pharmacists were providing advice and treatment for head lice, in the absence of a referral from general practice. Changes in prescribing behaviour were assessed from Prescribing Analysis and Cost (PACT) data. Acceptability and subjective assessment of the scheme (patients and professionals) was gauged from questionnaires. RESULTS: Referral patterns were altered drastically (away from general practice and towards self-referral) by the project, and the changes were apparent within the first month. This trend continued throughout and beyond the formal evaluation period. Cost analysis suggests that the community pharmacy scheme generates resource savings, largely driven by the lower cost of a pharmacy consultation, as opposed to a GP consultation. Questionnaire evidence suggests that both patients and health care professionals viewed the new arrangement as at least as acceptable as the old. CONCLUSION: With respect to the original objective, the new delivery system appears to provide no evidence of ineffectiveness; evidence of acceptability on the part of the majority of patients and professionals; and evidence of improved cost-effectiveness. (+info)
(5/144) Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.
Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed. (+info)
(6/144) Epidemiological aspects of head lice in children attending day care centres, urban and rural schools in Uberlandia, central Brazil.
From November 1996 to March 2000, a total of 884 children between 0 and 15 years, from 11 institutions including day care centres, public urban and public rural schools in Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, central Brazil, were examined for head louse infestation. Children's sex, race, age and some hairs characteristics were shown to be associated to parasite infestation. A prevalence rate of 35% was found and the highest rates were observed in black, female children, with long, dark, wavy hairs. Hairs density and thickness did not seem to influence significantly the distribution of this pediculosis in Uberlandia's schoolchildren. Differences observed between the prevalence rates of head lice in children from the urban institutions suggest there is a greater epidemiological heterogeneity in this group when compared to the rural schoolchildren. (+info)
(7/144) Wet combing for head lice: feasibility in mass screening, treatment preference and outcome.
There is no scientific consensus on the best way to control head louse infestation in schoolchildren. A study was conducted to test the feasibility and acceptability of a screening campaign by wet combing and a community approach to head-louse control with home visits, and to explore parents' treatment preferences and treatment outcomes. A non-controlled intervention (advice on treatment options offered to all positive children) was nested within an epidemiological prevalence study. All children in three primary schools in Ghent, Belgium, were invited to take part in screening by wet combing (n=677, 3-11 years). Positive children were offered structural treatment advice, a home visit on day 7, and a check by wet combing on day 14. 83% of the children were screened. The prevalence of active infestation (living moving lice) was 13.0% in school 1 and 19.5% in school 3. In school 2, prevalence of signs of active and past infestation was 40.7%. A home visit was made to 58% of the positive children. 85% of the positive children were screened again on day 14. Wet combing was the most widely used treatment, followed by chemical treatment and a combination of the two. In school 1 and 3 51% were cured, and in school 2 24% became nit-free. A wet combing screening campaign and a community-oriented approach to head-louse control is feasible though resource-intensive. The prevalence of head lice was high and the cure rate was low, with either topical treatments or wet combing. (+info)
(8/144) Fast, noninvasive method for molecular detection and differentiation of Malassezia yeast species on human skin and application of the method to dandruff microbiology.
Malassezia fungi have been the suspected cause of dandruff for more than a century. Previously referred to as Pityrosporum ovale, Pityrosporum orbiculare, or Malassezia, these fungi are now known to consist of at least seven Malassezia species. Each species has a specific ecological niche, as well as specific biochemical and genetic characteristics. Malassezia yeasts have fastidious culture conditions and exceedingly different growth rates. Therefore, the results of surveys of Malassezia based on culture methods can be difficult to interpret. We developed a molecular technique, terminal fragment length polymorphism analysis, to more accurately survey the ecology of Malassezia yeasts without bias from culture. This technique involves fluorescent nested PCR of the intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) ITS I and ITS II region ribosomal gene clusters. All known Malassezia species can be differentiated by unique ITS fragment lengths. We have used this technique to directly analyze scalp samples from subjects enrolled in a demographic scalp health study. Results for subjects assigned composite adherent scalp flaking scores (ASFS) <10 were compared to those for subjects assigned composite ASFS >24. Malassezia restricta and M. globosa were found to be the predominant Malassezia species present in both groups. Importantly, we found no evidence of M. furfur in either group, indicating that M. furfur can be eliminated as the causal organism for dandruff. Both groups also showed the presence of non-Malassezia fungi. This method, particularly when it is used in combination with existing fungal ITS databases, is expected to be useful in the diagnosis of multiple other fungal infections. (+info)