(1/134) Gonorrhoea in patients with scabies.
242 patients with scabies were examined for gonorrhoea at the Municipal Hospital of Copenhagen over a one-year period. We found asymptomatic gonorrhoea in 2% of the male patients and 12%. of the female patients. The incidence of gonorrhoea in female patients with scabies is thus higher than in other routinely examined groups of patients (Andersen and Nielsen, 1974; Gregersen, 1972; Hansen and Lange, 1973; Nielsen, 1974; Starck, Bygdeman, Eriksson, Heinerz, and Moberg, )971). Our suggestion is that all patients with scabies, male as well as female, should be examined routinely for gonorrhoea. (+info)
(2/134) The epidemiology of head lice and scabies in the UK.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the prevalence of both scabies and head lice is increasing and also that both conditions are becoming refractory to pesticide treatment. Using information obtained from the Office of National Statistics, Royal College of General Practitioners Weekly Returns Service, Department of Health, local surveys of school children from Bristol and drug sales of insecticides, we have confirmed that there has been a rise in the prevalence of both conditions. We have shown that scabies is significantly more prevalent in urbanized areas (P < 0.00001), north of the country (P < 0.000001), in children and women (P < 0.000001) and commoner in the winter compared to the summer. Scabies was also shown to have a cyclical rise in incidence roughly every 20 years. Head lice were shown to be significantly more prevalent in children and mothers (P < 0.000001) though both conditions were seen in all age groups. Head lice were also less common during the summer. Host behaviour patterns, asymptomatic carriage, drug resistance and tourism from countries or districts with a higher incidence may be important factors in the currently high prevalence of both scabies and head lice. (+info)
(3/134) Crusted scabies: A molecular analysis of Sarcoptes scabiei variety hominis populations from patients with repeated infestations.
Crusted scabies is a severe debilitating disease due to hyperinfestation with the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei. Treatment protocols include oral ivermectin and topical scabicides. After single-dose ivermectin, there may be early recrudescence, whereas after 3 doses at 14-day intervals, there is an apparent cure. However, such patients often present again after 6-12 months. To clarify the biology of recurrence, we studied genetic markers in sequential populations of S. scabiei mites from treated patients with multiple episodes of crusted scabies. Individual mites were genotyped at hypervariable microsatellite loci by a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that sequential populations of mites were genetically more similar to each other than to mites from other patients. Although the majority of recurrent scabies is probably due to reinfestation from inadequately treated contacts, there was evidence that in very severe crusted scabies, treatment with even 3 doses of ivermectin 14 days apart may be inadequate and relapse may occur. (+info)
(4/134) Genetically distinct dog-derived and human-derived Sarcoptes scabiei in scabies-endemic communities in northern Australia.
Overcrowding is a significant factor contributing to endemic infection with Sarcoptes scabiei in human and animal populations. However, since scabies mites from different host species are indistinguishable morphologically, it is unclear whether people can be infected from scabies-infested animals. Molecular fingerprinting was done using three S. scabiei-specific single locus hypervariable microsatellite markers, with a combined total of 70 known alleles. Multilocus analysis of 712 scabies mites from human and dog hosts in Ohio, Panama and Aboriginal communities in northern Australia now shows that genotypes of dog-derived and human-derived scabies cluster by host species rather than by geographic location. Because of the apparent genetic separation between human scabies and dog scabies, control programs for human scabies in endemic areas do not require resources directed against zoonotic infection from dogs. (+info)
(5/134) Treatment of human scabies with oral ivermectin.
Thirty-eight patients with scabies (21 males and 17 females) received oral ivermectin in two doses of 200 microg/kg at 7 days interval. Excellent results were achieved in 29 cases (76.34%), improvement in 6 (15.78%) and poor responses in 3 (7.88%). Tolerance was satisfactory-excellent in 32 patients (84.2%). The effectiveness and safety of the drug described in previous studies are confirmed by the present results. (+info)
(6/134) Invading parasites cause a structural shift in red fox dynamics.
The influence of parasites on host life histories and populations is pronounced. Among several diseases affecting animal populations throughout the world, sarcoptic mange has influenced many carnivore populations dramatically and during the latest epizootic in Fennoscandia reduced the abundance of red fox by over 70%. While the numerical responses of red fox populations, their prey and their competitors as well as clinical implications are well known, knowledge of how sarcoptic mange affects the structure of the dynamics of red fox populations is lacking. Integrating ecological theory and statistical modelling, we analysed the long-term dynamics (1955-1996) of 14 Danish red fox populations. As suggested by the model, invading sarcoptic mange significantly affected direct and delayed density dependence in red fox dynamics and concomitant shifts in fluctuation patterns were observed. Our statistical analyses also revealed that the spatial progressive spread of mange mites was mirrored in the autocovariate structures of red fox populations progressively exposed to sarcoptic mange. (+info)
(7/134) Crusted (Norwegian) scabies in two old-age home residents.
Scabies is commonly seen in hospitals, where it frequently affects geriatric and convalescent patients. The clinical features of the classic form of scabies are well recognised. Crusted (Norwegian) scabies, which is a hyperinfestation variant of scabies, is very contagious and can present as other dermatoses, thus delaying the correct diagnosis and management. Two residents of different old-age homes presented with hyperkeratotic skin eruptions, which later proved to be crusted scabies. In both cases, the scabies was initially misdiagnosed as eczema. The delay in making a correct diagnosis led to an outbreak of scabies in the old-age home in which one of the patients was residing. (+info)
(8/134) Gonorrhoea in 1972. A 1-year study of patients attending the VD Unit in Uppsala.
During 1972 a total of 2,090 men and 1,489 women were seen in the VD clinic in Uppsala, Sweden. The most frequent diagnosis among the men was non-gonococcal urethritis (38 per cent.) and among the women non-gonococcal vaginitis (34 per cent.), N. gonorrhoeae was found in 22 per cent. of the men and in 33 per cent. of the women, 68 per cent. of the men with gonorrhoea attended because of symptoms, but 67 per cent. of the men without gonococcal infections came for the same reason. 39 per cent. of the women with gonorrhoea attended after being told by their sexual partner; it was found that women coming because of symptoms were most likely to have non-gonococcal infection. Gonorrhoea without subjective symptoms was found in 23 per cent. of the men and 50 per cent. of the women. Gonorrhoea was found in association with scabies in 9 out of 18 men and in 3 out of 5 women. A rising incidence of pharyngeal gonococcal infections has been noticed at the clinic and the figures for 1972 were 6 per cent. of the men and 9 per cnet. of the women with gonorrhoea. The route of infection was usually oro-genital contact, but in some cases other routes had to be considered. It was not possible to define a promiscuous group of patients suitable for a planned study of prophylactic treatment, as only 2 per cent. of the men and 1 per cent. of the women had had nore than one gonococcal infection during the preceding year. The standard treatment for genital gonorrhoea (ampicillin 2 times 1 g. orally with a 5-hour interval) was very satisfactory and gave a 98 per cent. cure rate. This was possible because there were few gonococcal strains with decreased panicillin sensitivity. There were considerable problems in treating the pharyngeal infections, the standard treatment failing in 61 per cent. (+info)