Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption. (+info)
(2/3417) Postoperative tetany in Graves disease: important role of vitamin D metabolites.
OBJECTIVE: To test the authors' hypothesis of the causal mechanism(s) of postoperative tetany in patients with Graves disease. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies by the authors suggested that postoperative tetany in patients with Graves disease occurs during the period of bone restoration and resulted from continuation of a calcium flux into bone concomitant with transient hypoparathyroidism induced by surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to investigate sequential changes in serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium and other electrolytes, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and bone metabolic markers in 109 consecutive patients with Graves disease who underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. RESULTS: Preoperative serum iPTH levels negatively correlated with ionized calcium levels and positively correlated with 1,25(OH)2D or 1,25(OH)2D/25OHD. After the operation, there was a significant decline in levels of ionized calcium, magnesium, and iPTH. Serum iPTH was not detected in 15 patients after surgery. Four of these 15 patients, and 1 patient whose iPTH level was below normal, developed tetany. Preoperative serum ionized calcium levels were significantly lower, and iPTH levels were higher, in the 5 patients with tetany than in the 11 patients who did not develop tetany despite undetectable iPTH levels. The tetany group had significantly lower serum 25OHD levels and higher 1,25(OH)2D levels, and had increased 1,25(OH)2D/25OHD as an index of the renal 25OHD-1-hydroxylase activity than those in the nontetany group. These results suggest that patients with a high serum level of iPTH as a result of low serum calcium levels (secondary hyperparathyroidism) are susceptible to tetany under conditions of hypoparathyroid function after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative tetany occurs in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by a relative deficiency in calcium and vitamin D because of their increased demand for bone restoration after preoperative medical therapy concomitant with transient hypoparathyroidism after surgery. Calcium and vitamin D supplements may be recommended before and/or after surgery for patients in whom postoperative tetany is expected to develop. (+info)
(3/3417) Megalin antagonizes activation of the parathyroid hormone receptor.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is predominantly cleared from the circulation by glomerular filtration and degradation in the renal proximal tubules. Here, we demonstrate that megalin, a multifunctional endocytic receptor in the proximal tubular epithelium, mediates the uptake and degradation of PTH. Megalin was purified from kidney membranes as the major PTH-binding protein and shown in BIAcore analysis to specifically bind full-length PTH and amino-terminal PTH fragments (Kd 0.5 microM). Absence of the receptor in megalin knockout mice resulted in 4-fold increased levels of amino-terminal PTH fragments in the urine. In F9 cells expressing both megalin and the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH/PTHrP receptor), uptake and lysosomal degradation of the hormone was mediated through megalin. Blocking megalin-mediated clearance of PTH resulted in 3-fold increased stimulation of the PTH/PTHrP receptor. These data provide evidence that megalin is involved in the renal catabolism of PTH and potentially antagonizes PTH/PTHrP receptor activity in the proximal tubular epithelium. (+info)
(4/3417) 22-oxacalcitriol suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism without inducing low bone turnover in dogs with renal failure.
BACKGROUND: Calcitriol therapy suppresses serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with renal failure but has several drawbacks, including hypercalcemia and/or marked suppression of bone turnover, which may lead to adynamic bone disease. A new vitamin D analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), has been shown to have promising characteristics. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of OCT on serum PTH levels and bone turnover in states of normal or impaired renal function. METHODS: Sixty dogs were either nephrectomized (Nx, N = 38) or sham-operated (Sham, N = 22). The animals received supplemental phosphate to enhance PTH secretion. Fourteen weeks after the start of phosphate supplementation, half of the Nx and Sham dogs received doses of OCT (three times per week); the other half were given vehicle for 60 weeks. Thereafter, the treatment modalities for a subset of animals were crossed over for an additional eight months. Biochemical and hormonal indices of calcium and bone metabolism were measured throughout the study, and bone biopsies were done at baseline, 60 weeks after OCT or vehicle treatment, and at the end of the crossover period. RESULTS: In Nx dogs, OCT significantly decreased serum PTH levels soon after the induction of renal insufficiency. In long-standing secondary hyperparathyroidism, OCT (0.03 microg/kg) stabilized serum PTH levels during the first months. Serum PTH levels rose thereafter, but the rise was less pronounced compared with baseline than the rise seen in Nx control. These effects were accompanied by episodes of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. In animals with normal renal function, OCT induced a transient decrease in serum PTH levels at a dose of 0.1 microg/kg, which was not sustained with lowering of the doses. In Nx dogs, OCT reversed abnormal bone formation, such as woven osteoid and fibrosis, but did not significantly alter the level of bone turnover. In addition, OCT improved mineralization lag time, (that is, the rate at which osteoid mineralizes) in both Nx and Sham dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though OCT does not completely prevent the occurrence of hypercalcemia in experimental dogs with renal insufficiency, it may be of use in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism because it does not induce low bone turnover and, therefore, does not increase the risk of adynamic bone disease. (+info)
(5/3417) The structure of human parathyroid hormone-related protein(1-34) in near-physiological solution.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein plays a major role in the pathogenesis of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Under normal physiological conditions, parathyroid hormone-related protein is produced in a wide variety of tissues and acts in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. Parathyroid hormone-related protein and parathyroid hormone bind to and activate the same G-protein-coupled receptor. Here we present the structure of the biologically active NH2-terminal domain of human parathyroid hormone-related protein(1-34) in near-physiological solution in the absence of crowding reagents as determined by two-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An improved strategy for structure calculation revealed the presence of two helices, His-5-Leu-8 and Gln-16-Leu-27, connected by a flexible linker. The parathyroid hormone-related protein(1-34) structure and the structure of human parathyroid hormone(1-37) as well as human parathyroid hormone(1-34) are highly similar, except for the well defined turn, His-14-Ser-17, present in parathyroid hormone. Thus, the similarity of the binding affinities of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein to their common receptor may be based on their structural similarity. (+info)
(6/3417) Calcium absorption and kinetics are similar in 7- and 8-year-old Mexican-American and Caucasian girls despite hormonal differences.
To assess the possibility of ethnic differences in mineral metabolism in prepubertal children, we compared measures of calcium metabolism in 7- and 8-y-old Mexican-American (MA) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (CAU) girls (n = 38) living in southeastern Texas. We found similar fractional calcium absorption, urinary calcium excretion, calcium kinetic values and total-body bone mineral content in the MA and CAU girls. In contrast, parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were greater in MA girls (4.01 +/- 0.47 vs. 1. 96 +/- 0.50 pmol/L, P = 0.005) than in CAU girls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were lower in MA girls (68.9 +/- 7.7 vs. 109.4 +/- 8.4 nmol/L, P = 0.001) than in CAU girls, but 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations did not differ between groups. Seasonal variability was seen for 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in girls of both ethnic groups, but values in all of the girls were >30 nmol/L (12 ng/mL). We conclude the following: 1) greater PTH levels in MA girls than CAU girls are present without evidence of vitamin D deficiency; and 2) differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations between MA and CAU girls do not have a large effect on calcium absorption, excretion or bone calcium kinetics. These data do not provide evidence for adjusting dietary recommendations for mineral or vitamin D intake by MA girls. (+info)
(7/3417) Pregnancy decreases immunoreactive parathyroid hormone level in rats with chronic renal failure.
Normal pregnancy is associated with an increase in serum parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol). The effect of pregnancy on these hormones in chronic renal failure (CRF) is unknown. The present work was undertaken to study the changes of serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and calcitriol in pregnant rats with CRF. The following experimental groups were studied: CRF1 (5/6 nephrectomized virgin female rats), CRF2 (5/6 nephrectomized pregnant rats at day 20-21 of pregnancy), CRF3 (5/6 nephrectomized rats 2 weeks after delivery) and their respective sham-operated control groups: N1, N2 and N3. The 5/6 nephrectomy (CRF1) resulted in renal failure with very high serum iPTH (100+/-18 pg/ml) and low calcitriol levels (10.6+/-4.3 pg/ml) compared with normal rats [N1: 14+/-2.5 pg/ml (P<0.001) and 18.2+/-4.2 pg/ml (P<0.01) respectively]. The pregnancy in CRF rats (CRF2) resulted in normalization of serum iPTH levels (18.2+/-5.41 pg/ml), which was associated with a parallel increase in serum calcitriol (29.4+/-8.0 pg/ml) similar to that in pregnancy of normal rats (N2). Two weeks after delivery the CRF rats (CRF3) once again had high serum iPTH (87+/-17 pg/ml) and low calcitriol levels (9.3+/-1.2 pg/ml), similar to those observed in non-pregnant uraemic rats (CRF1). It is concluded that pregnancy decreases serum iPTH in 5/6 nephrectomized CRF rats most probably by the increased level of calcitriol synthesized by the feto-placental unit. (+info)
(8/3417) Acute fasting diminishes the circadian rhythm of biochemical markers of bone resorption.
OBJECTIVE: Biochemical markers of bone turnover exhibit circadian rhythms with the peak during the night/early morning and the nadir in the late afternoon. The nocturnal increase in bone resorption could theoretically be caused by the absence of food consumption which brings about a decrease in net calcium absorption and an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH), followed by increased bone resorption in response to the body's demand for calcium. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of a 33-h fast on the circadian variation in biochemical markers of bone turnover. DESIGN: Eleven healthy premenopausal women (age: 24+/-5 years) participated in a randomised, cross-over study consisting of two periods: either 33h of fasting (fasting) followed 1 week later by a 33-h period with regular meals eaten at 0800-0830h, 1130-1230h and 1800-1900h (control) or vice versa. METHODS: Urinary CrossLaps (U-CL/Cr) corrected with creatinine, as a marker of bone resorption; serum osteocalcin (sOC) as a marker of bone formation; serum intact PTH (iPTH); serum phosphate; and serum calcium corrected with albumin. RESULTS: Both the fasting and the control periods showed a significant circadian rhythm in U-CL/Cr (P<0.001), but the decrease was significantly less pronounced in the morning hours during the fasting period. Fasting resulted in a significant decrease in serum iPTH (throughout the study period) as compared with the control period (P<0.05-0.001). No change was observed in sOC by fasting. CONCLUSION: Food consumption has a small influence on the circadian variation in bone resorption, independent of PTH. The fall in iPTH during fasting may be secondary to an increased bone resorption produced by fasting. (+info)