(1/234) MR appearance of rhinoscleroma.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We describe the MR imaging appearance of rhinoscleroma, an endemic, chronic, granulomatous disease whose causative agent is Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. METHODS: The study included 15 patients (nine males and six females; mean age, 25 years; range, 13-36 years) with rhinoscleroma. MR imaging was performed in all patients. The signal intensity of the nasal masses was compared with that of fat, muscle, and CSF on both T1- and T2-weighted images. All cases were proved by histopathologic examination. RESULTS: The nasal masses were bilateral and symmetrical (n = 6), asymmetrical (n = 4), or unilateral (n = 5). They extended through the anterior nares (n = 9) or posterior choana into the nasopharynx (n = 3). They obstructed the ostiomeatal units with retained secretions in the related sinuses (n = 10). On T1-weighted images, rhinoscleroma showed striking (n = 9) or mild (n = 6) high signal intensity relative to muscle and CSF, but less hyperintensity than fat. On T2-weighted images, the nasal masses showed homogeneous high signal intensity (n = 10) or heterogeneous high signal intensity associated with hypointense foci (n = 5). They were hyperintense relative to fat and muscle, but less hyperintense than CSF. CONCLUSION: The hypertrophic stage of rhinoscleroma has characteristic mild to marked high signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images. (+info)
(2/234) Recurrent inverted papilloma: diagnosis with pharmacokinetic dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging has been used successfully to identify post-treatment recurrence or postoperative changes in rectal and cervical carcinoma. Our purpose was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging for distinguishing recurrent inverted papilloma (IP) from postoperative changes. METHODS: Fifteen patients with 20 pathologically proved lesions (recurrent IP, 12; fibrosis or granulation tissue, eight) were enrolled in the study. Three observers, blinded to pathologic results, independently evaluated conventional MR images, including T1-weighted (unenhanced and postcontrast), proton-density-weighted, and T2-weighted spin-echo images. Results then were determined by consensus. Dynamic images were obtained using fast spin-echo sequences at 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 300 seconds after the injection of gadolinium-diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid. Time-signal intensity curves of suspected lesions were analyzed by a pharmacokinetic model. The calculated amplitude and tissue distribution time were used to characterize tissue, and their values were displayed as a color-coded overlay. RESULTS: T2-weighted images yielded a sensitivity of 67%, a specificity of 75%, and an accuracy of 70% in the diagnosis of recurrent IP. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images yielded a sensitivity of 75%, a specificity of 50%, and an accuracy of 65%. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that recurrent IP had faster (distribution time, 41 versus 88 seconds) and higher (amplitude, 2.4 versus 1.2 arbitrary units) enhancement than did fibrosis or granulation tissue. A cut-off of 65 seconds for distribution time and 1.6 units for amplitude yielded a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for diagnosing recurrent IP. CONCLUSION: Dynamic MR imaging can differentiate accurately recurrent IP from postoperative changes and seems to be a valuable diagnostic tool. (+info)
(3/234) Nose blowing propels nasal fluid into the paranasal sinuses.
Intranasal pressures were measured in adults during nose blowing, sneezing, and coughing and were used for fluid dynamic modeling. Sinus CT scans were performed after instillation of radiopaque contrast medium into the nasopharynx followed by nose blowing, sneezing, and coughing. The mean (+/-SD) maximal intranasal pressure was 66 (+/-14) mm Hg during 35 nose blows, 4.6 (+/-3.8) mm Hg during 13 sneezes, and 6.6 (+/-3.8) mm Hg during 18 coughing bouts. A single nose blow can propel up to 1 mL of viscous fluid in the middle meatus into the maxillary sinus. Sneezing and coughing do not generate sufficient pressure to propel viscous fluid into the sinus. Contrast medium from the nasopharynx appeared in >/=1 sinuses in 4 of 4 subjects after a nose blow but not after sneezing or coughing. (+info)
(4/234) Septal splint with wax plates.
To pack or not to pack, has always been a debate, especially after septal and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The authors have studied the symptoms of packing versus not packing in their series of 100 patients having undergone nasal surgery. They advocate the use of dental wax for the fashioning of septal splints, since they are easy to introduce, cheap and malleable. The patients postoperative comfort is greatly enhanced with the use of dental wax plate splints instead of nasal packing. (+info)
(5/234) Anatomical variations in the human paranasal sinus region studied by CT.
A precise knowledge of the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses is essential for the clinician. Conventional radiology does not permit a detailed study of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, and has now largely been replaced by computerised tomographic (CT) imaging. This gives an applied anatomical view of the region and the anatomical variants that are very often found. The detection of these variants to prevent potential hazards is essential for the use of current of endoscopic surgery on the sinuses. In the present work, we have studied the anatomical variants observed in the nasal fossae and paranasal sinuses in 110 Spanish subjects, using CT in the coronal plane, complemented by horizontal views. We have concentrated on the variants of the nasal septum, middle nasal concha, ethmoid unciform process and ethmoid bulla, together with others of lesser frequency. The population studied showed great anatomical variability, and a high percentage (67%) presented one or more anatomical variants. Discounting agger nasi air cells and asymmetry of both cavities of the sphenoidal sinus, which were present in all our cases, the variations most often observed were, in order, deviation of the nasal septum, the presence of a concha bullosa, bony spurs of the nasal septum and Onodi air cells. (+info)
(6/234) Panfungal PCR and multiplex liquid hybridization for detection of fungi in tissue specimens.
A procedure based on panfungal PCR and multiplex liquid hybridization was developed for the detection of fungi in tissue specimens. The PCR amplified the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2). After capture with specific probes, eight common fungal pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Cryptococcus neoformans) were identified according to the size of the amplification product on an automated sequencer. The nonhybridized products were identified by sequencing. The performance of the procedure was examined with 12 deep-tissue specimens and 8 polypous tissue biopsies from the paranasal sinuses. A detection level of 0.1 to 1 pg of purified DNA (2 to 20 CFU) was achieved. Of the 20 specimens, PCR was positive for 19 (95%), of which 10 (53%) were hybridization positive. In comparison, 12 (60%) of the specimens were positive by direct microscopy, but only 7 (35%) of the specimens showed fungal growth. Sequencing of the nonhybridized amplification products identified an infecting agent in six specimens, and three specimens yielded only sequences of unknown fungal origin. The procedure provides a rapid (within 2 days) detection of common fungal pathogens in tissue specimens, and it is highly versatile for the identification of other fungal pathogens. (+info)
(7/234) Sinonasal tract eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. A report of three cases.
Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare submucosal fibrosis without a well-developed differential diagnosis. Three cases of sinonasal tract EAF were identified in 2 women and 1 man, aged 49, 64, and 28 years, respectively. The patients experienced a nasal cavity mass, maxillary pain, or nasal obstructive symptoms of long duration. The process involved the nasal septum (n = 2), nasal cavity (n = 1), and/or the maxillary sinus (n = 1). There was no evidence for Wegener granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Kimura disease, granuloma faciale, or erythema elevatum diutinum. Histologically, the lesions demonstrated a characteristic perivascular "onion-skin" fibrosis and a full spectrum of inflammatory cells, although eosinophils predominated. Necrosis and foreign body-type giant cells were not identified. Surgical excision was used for all patients, who are all alive but with disease at last follow-up. Sinonasal tract EAF is a unique fibroproliferative disorder that does not seem to have systemic associations with known diseases. The characteristic histomorphologic features permit accurate diagnosis. (+info)
(8/234) Risk factors for post-stem cell transplant sinusitis.
An understanding of the factors that place the post-transplant patient at increased risk for sinusitis would help identify patients likely to develop disease and possibly allow for interventions that would decrease the incidence or severity of sinus disease. This retrospective study investigates the ability of screening paranasal sinus computed tomographic scans (CTs), clinical history, and potential risk factors for sinusitis, including history of tobacco use, history of allergies or asthma, IgG level, history of sinusitis, remission status and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) to predict post-transplant sinusitis. Medical records and sinus CTs of 100 allogeneic bone marrow recipients were reviewed. There was no increased risk of developing sinusitis post SCT for patients with significant disease on screening CT, symptoms at time of transplant, a history of tobacco use, asthma or allergies, low IgG level, history of sinusitis or for patients at high risk of relapse. Patients with GVHD were 4.3 times more likely than patients without GVHD to develop sinusitis post transplant (95% CI: 1.7-11.0, P = 0.002). Acute GVHD places patients at greater risk of developing sinus infections. (+info)