(1/433) Sternothoracotomy for combined coronary artery bypass grafting and left upper lobectomy in a patient with low-lying tracheostoma.

A 64-year-old man had a low-lying tracheostoma and presented with unstable angina and a mass in the pulmonary left upper lobe. Simultaneous coronary revascularization and resection of the lung neoplasm were completed through a sternothoracotomy (clam-shell) incision. The advantages of this approach include excellent exposure to the mediastinum and the lung fields, and the option of using both internal thoracic arteries for bypass grafting.  (+info)

(2/433) Cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase, and cytochrome P450 genotypes and outcome in patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancers: assessment of the importance of individual genes using multivariate analysis.

GST, CYP, and CCND1 genotypes have been associated with outcome in several cancers. Accordingly, we have examined, in patients with one squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck, associations between GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CCND1 genotypes and the outcome parameters, tumor extension, histological grade, and presence of nodes. We used logistic regression to study, first, each gene individually and, second, in a step-wise model that included all of the genes. Different genes were associated with each outcome parameter. Thus, GSTT1 null was associated with T3/T4 lesions in the oral cavity/pharyngeal (P = 0.029), but not laryngeal, SCC cases. GSTT1 null was also associated with histological differentiation (G3) in the oral cavity/pharyngeal, but not laryngeal, SCC cases, although this association only approached significance (P = 0.069). CCND1 GG was associated with G3 tumors in the oral cavity/pharyngeal (P = 0.011), but not laryngeal, SCC cases. The combination of GSTT1 null/CCND1 GG was also associated with G3 tumors. CYP2D6 PM and HET were associated with lymph node involvement in the laryngeal, but not oral/pharynx, SCC cases. Genes that were individually associated with outcome were also associated with the parameter in the step-wise routine. The GSTT1 null frequency was greater in 39 patients with second primary tumors than in those with one lesion (P = 0.014). The data demonstrate site-dependent associations between GSTT1 null, CCND1 GG, and CYP2D6 PM and tumor extension, differentiation, and nodes.  (+info)

(3/433) Randomized trial of radiation therapy versus concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for advanced-stage oropharynx carcinoma.

BACKGROUND: We designed a randomized clinical trial to test whether the addition of three cycles of chemotherapy during standard radiation therapy would improve disease-free survival in patients with stages III and IV (i.e., advanced oropharynx carcinoma). METHODS: A total of 226 patients have been entered in a phase III multicenter, randomized trial comparing radiotherapy alone (arm A) with radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy (arm B). Radiotherapy was identical in the two arms, delivering, with conventional fractionation, 70 Gy in 35 fractions. In arm B, patients received during the period of radiotherapy three cycles of a 4-day regimen containing carboplatin (70 mg/m(2) per day) and 5-fluorouracil (600 mg/m(2) per day) by continuous infusion. The two arms were equally balanced with regard to age, sex, stage, performance status, histology, and primary tumor site. RESULTS: Radiotherapy compliance was similar in the two arms with respect to total dose, treatment duration, and treatment interruption. The rate of grades 3 and 4 mucositis was statistically significantly higher in arm B (71%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 54%-85%) than in arm A (39%; 95% CI = 29%-56%). Skin toxicity was not different between the two arms. Hematologic toxicity was higher in arm B as measured by neutrophil count and hemoglobin level. Three-year overall actuarial survival and disease-free survival rates were, respectively, 51% (95% CI = 39%-68%) versus 31% (95% CI = 18%-49%) and 42% (95% CI = 30%-57%) versus 20% (95% CI = 10%-33%) for patients treated with combined modality versus radiation therapy alone (P =.02 and.04, respectively). The locoregional control rate was improved in arm B (66%; 95% CI = 51%-78%) versus arm A (42%; 95% CI = 31%-56%). CONCLUSION: The statistically significant improvement in overall survival that was obtained supports the use of concomitant chemotherapy as an adjunct to radiotherapy in the management of carcinoma of the oropharynx.  (+info)

(4/433) Cigar smoking in men and risk of death from tobacco-related cancers.

BACKGROUND: Cigar consumption in the United States has increased dramatically since 1993, yet there are limited prospective data on the risk of cancer associated with cigar smoking. We examined the association between cigar smoking and death from tobacco-related cancers in a large, prospective cohort of U. S. men. METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the relationship between cigar smoking at baseline in 1982 and mortality from cancers of the lung, oral cavity/pharynx, larynx, esophagus, bladder, and pancreas over 12 years of follow-up of the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II cohort. A total of 137 243 men were included in the final analysis. Women were not included because we had no data on their cigar use. We excluded men who ever smoked cigarettes or pipes and adjusted all rate ratio (RR) estimates for age, alcohol use, and use of snuff or chewing tobacco. RESULTS: Current cigar smoking at baseline, as compared with never smoking, was associated with an increased risk of death from cancers of the lung (RR = 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.0-6.6), oral cavity/pharynx (RR = 4.0 [95% CI = 1.5-10.3]), larynx (RR = 10.3 [95% CI = 2.6-41.0]), and esophagus (RR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.9-3.7). Although current cigar smokers overall did not appear to be at an increased risk of death from cancer of the pancreas (RR = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.9-1.9) or bladder (RR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.4-2.3), there was an increased risk for current cigar smokers who reported that they inhaled the smoke (for pancreas, RR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.5-4.8; for bladder, RR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.3-9.9). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this large prospective study support a strong association between cigar smoking and mortality from several types of cancer.  (+info)

(5/433) Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor protein levels in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

PURPOSE: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) promotes angiogenesis in many different tumor types. VEGF levels may affect tumor growth, metastatic potential, and response to radiotherapy. This study assesses the prognostic value of VEGF protein levels in a cohort of patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The relationships between clinical outcome and the covariables of tumor-node-metastasis stage, disease stage (I to IV), grade, margin status, race, sex, and age were also determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chart review identified 77 patients with oral or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with gross total surgical resection and postoperative radiation between 1981 and 1992. Sufficient follow-up data and tumor tissue were available in 56 patients (73%). VEGF protein levels were determined using immunohistochemistry. The association between VEGF status, covariables, and outcome was assessed in a bivariate and multivariate model using two-sided statistical tests. RESULTS: Twenty-three tumors (41%) were positive for VEGF expression. VEGF-positive tumors were more likely to recur locally (relative risk [RR] = 3.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 9.24) and distantly (RR = 4.62; 95% CI, 1.41 to 15.10). In bivariate analysis, VEGF positivity was the most significant predictor of poor disease-free survival (RR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.27 to 5.56) and overall survival (RR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.63 to 6.32). In multivariate analysis, VEGF positivity was the most significant predictor of poor disease-free survival (RR = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.30 to 5.79) and overall survival (RR = 3.53; 95% CI, 1.75 to 7.13). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, VEGF positivity was the most significant predictor of poor prognosis. VEGF status may prove to be an important prognostic factor in head and neck cancer.  (+info)

(6/433) Sonographic findings of the neopharynx after total laryngectomy: comparison with CT.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To our knowledge, sonographic findings in the neopharynx have not been well characterized. We describe our results and assess the role of sonography versus CT in patients who have undergone total laryngectomy. METHODS: We examined 25 patients (24 men and one woman; 44-78 years old) who had had a total laryngectomy. Sonography (with a 10-MHz transducer) and contrast-enhanced CT were performed in all patients. We evaluated the normal shape of the neopharynx and assessed the accuracy of sonography versus CT in detecting tumor recurrence in the neck. RESULTS: The neopharynx appears as a round or ovoid structure on imaging studies. On sonograms, the neopharyngeal wall has five layers of alternating echogenicity: an innermost hyperechoic layer of superficial mucosa, an inner hypoechoic layer of deep mucosa, a middle hyperechoic layer of submucosa, an outer hypoechoic layer of muscle, and an outermost hyperechoic layer of adventitia. On CT scans, the neopharynx appears as a three-layered structure, with an inner hyperdense layer of mucosa, a middle hypodense layer of submucosa, and an outer isodense layer of pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Nine pathologically proved recurrences were found: three local recurrences, one local recurrence with lymph node metastasis, and five cases of lymph node metastasis only. One instance of false-negative lymph node metastasis was seen at sonography and one case of false-positive local recurrence was seen at CT. CONCLUSION: The neopharynx has a unique sonographic appearance, and this imaging technique is useful for detecting local tumor recurrence in the neopharynx in patients who have had a total laryngectomy.  (+info)

(7/433) Tobacco habits and risk of lung, oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: a population-based case-control study in Bhopal, India.

BACKGROUND: Tobacco habits in India are unique and vary in different regions. Few studies, and none from central India, have reported on type of tobacco used and risk of the most common cancer types in India. We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the risk of tobacco particularly bidi smoking and tobacco quid chewing on the most common cancer sites among males in Bhopal. METHODS: In all, 163 lung, 247 oropharyngeal and 148 oral cavity cancer cases from the Population-Based Cancer Registry records and 260 controls randomly selected from a tobacco survey conducted in the Bhopal population formed the study population. RESULTS: A significant risk of bidi and cigarette smoking with a dose-response relationship was observed for lung and oropharyngeal cancer. Tobacco quid chewing showed no risk for lung, marginally increased risk for oropharyngeal and about a sixfold increased risk for oral cavity cancer. Population-attributable risk per cent (PARP) was observed to be 82.7% and 71.6% for smokers for the development of lung and oropharyngeal cancer, while the same was found to be 66.1% for tobacco chewers for the development of oral cavity cancer. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide strong evidence that smoking bidi is even more hazardous than cigarette smoking in the development of lung and oropharyngeal cancer. An intervention study to prevent the use of tobacco will be useful in this population as it also underwent gas exposure due to a chemical accident in 1984.  (+info)

(8/433) Cyclooxygenase regulates human oropharyngeal carcinomas via the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6: a general role for inflammation?

High levels of prostaglandins are produced in human oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). Five human OPC cell lines tested expressed both isoforms of cyclooxygenases (COX). The pan-COX inhibitor ketorolac continuously and significantly decreased PGE(2) production and IL-6 and IL-8 levels in all OPC cell lines tested, but did not affect IL-1alpha, GM-CSF levels, or in vitro tumor cell growth. In contrast, ketorolac reduced OPC growth in vivo. The OPC cell lines used express the IL-6 receptor, and IL-6 stimulation of these cells causes transduction to occur via STAT3 pathway activation. Coincubation with OPC cell lines with conditioned medium from a TPA-exposed HL-60 cells stimulated growth proportional to the IL-6 levels measured in the conditioned medium. This growth effect was specifically inhibited by anti-IL-6 antibody. These results are consistent with cytokine products of inflammatory cells having paracrine growth effects on OPC. If chronic inflammation plays a role in promoting the development of OPC, this mechanism may also apply to other epithelial tumor systems modulated by COX activity.  (+info)