An 81-year-old male with myasthenia gravis developed a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium marinum, which apparently resolved following local heat therapy. Five months later, the patient developed new skin lesions and pancytopenia. M. marinum was isolated from his bone marrow. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to determine if the skin and bone marrow isolates were clonally related. Digestion of the genomic DNA with the restriction enzymes SpeI and AseI yielded indistinguishable banding patterns. An epidemiologically unrelated control strain showed significant banding differences. The results suggest that the patient's recurrent, disseminated infection was due to recrudescence of his initial infection rather than reinfection by another strain. (+info)
(2/164) Activation of human neutrophils by mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids.
The interaction between mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) and phagocytes was studied. Human neutrophils were allowed to interact with each of four purified mycobacterial PGLs and the neutrophil production of reactive oxygen metabolites was followed kinetically by luminol-/isoluminol-amplified chemiluminescence. The PGLs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii, respectively, were shown to stimulate the production of oxygen metabolites, while PGLs from Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, respectively, were unable to induce an oxidative response. Periodate treatment of the M. tuberculosis PGL decreased the production of oxygen radicals, showing the importance of the PGL carbohydrate moiety for the interaction. The activation, however, could not be inhibited by rhamnose or fucose, indicating a complex interaction which probably involves more than one saccharide unit. This is in line with the fact that the activating PGLs from M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii contain tri- and tetrasaccharides, respectively, while the nonactivating PGLs from M. marinum and M. bovis BCG each contain a monosaccharide. The complement receptor 3 (CR3) has earlier been shown to be of importance for the phagocyte binding of mycobacteria, but did not appear to be involved in the activation of neutrophils by PGLs. The subcellular localization of the reactive oxygen metabolites formed was related to the way in which the glycolipids were presented to the cells. (+info)
(3/164) Comparative severity of experimentally induced mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp.
Twenty striped bass Morone saxatilis and 20 hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus x O. aureus each received a single intramuscular injection of 1.6 x 10(6) colony forming units per gram body weight of Mycobacterium marinum. Striped bass manifested significantly greater clinical and microscopic disease compared to tilapia. Whereas all the striped bass had died or were clinically ill by Day 8 post-infection, there was no apparent disruption of normal behaviour, physical appearance, or growth in any of the sacrificed or surviving tilapia. Histologically, granulomas in striped bass were generally larger and less discrete, with a higher proportion of heavily vacuolated macrophages, and large cores of necrotic cells. Visceral granulomas in tilapia were smaller, with a higher proportion of epithelioid macrophages, more pigment-containing cells, more peripheral lymphocytes, and virtually no central necrosis. Visceral granulomas were 18-fold more numerous in striped bass than in tilapia. Based upon histomorphometric data, mean proportions of acid-fast bacteria within pronephros granulomas were 4-fold greater in striped bass than tilapia, and striped bass granulomas averaged more than twice as large as tilapia granulomas. In the anterior kidney of striped bass, a positive correlation existed between mean mycobacterial proportions and mean necrosis scores. In tilapia, mean mycobacterial proportions correlated negatively with mean granuloma numbers, whereas there was no correlation between these parameters in striped bass. Results suggest that intrinsic functional differences in the immunologic systems of striped bass and hybrid tilapia may contribute to inter-species variation in mycobacteriosis susceptibility. (+info)
(4/164) Mycobacteriosis in wild rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus associated with cage farming in the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea.
Infection patterns of Mycobacterium marinum were studied over a period of 3 yr in wild rabbitfish Siganus nivulatus populations associated with commercial mariculture cages and inhabiting various sites along the Israeli Red Sea coastline. Mycobacteriosis was first recorded from the Red Sea in 1990 in farmed sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and is absent from records of studies on parasites and diseases of wild rabbitfish carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. A sharp increase in the prevalence of the disease in cultured and wild fish in the region has occurred since. A total of 1142 rabbitfish were examined over a 3 yr period from inside mariculture net cages, from the cage surroundings and from several sites along the coast. Histological sections of spleens were examined for presence of granulomatous lesions. Overall prevalence levels of 50% were recorded in the rabbitfish sampled inside the net cages and 39% at the cages' close surroundings, 21% at a sandy beach site 1.2 km westwards, 35% at Eilat harbour 3 km to the south and 42% at a coral reef site about 10 km south of the cages. In addition, 147 fish belonging to 18 native Red Sea species were sampled from 2 sites, the net cage farm perimeter and the coral reef area, and examined for similar lesions. None of those from the coral reef were infected with Mycobacterium; however, 9 of 14 species collected from the cage surroundings were infected. An increase in prevalence of mycobacteriosis in the mariculture farm area was noted from 1995 to 1997. At the same time, a significant increase in prevalence was also apparent at the coral reef sampling site. Two M. marinum isolates from rabbitfish captured at Eilat harbour and the coral reef site were shown by 16S rDNA sequencing analysis to be identical to isolates from rabbitfish trapped inside the mariculture cages as well as isolates from locally cultured sea bass D. labrax. The implications of spreading of M. marinum infection in wild fish populations in the Gulf of Eilat are discussed. (+info)
(5/164) Granuloma-specific expression of Mycobacterium virulence proteins from the glycine-rich PE-PGRS family.
Pathogenic mycobacteria, including the agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, must replicate in macrophages for long-term persistence within their niche during chronic infection: organized collections of macrophages and lymphocytes called granulomas. We identified several genes preferentially expressed when Mycobacterium marinum, the cause of fish and amphibian tuberculosis, resides in host granulomas and/or macrophages. Two were homologs of M. tuberculosis PE/PE-PGRS genes, a family encoding numerous repetitive glycine-rich proteins of unknown function. Mutation of two PE-PGRS genes produced M. marinum strains incapable of replication in macrophages and with decreased persistence in granulomas. Our results establish a direct role in virulence for some PE-PGRS proteins. (+info)
(6/164) Incubation period and sources of exposure for cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection: case report and review of the literature.
The diagnosis of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection is often delayed for months after presentation, perhaps because important clinical clues in the patient's history are frequently overlooked. Knowledge of the incubation period allows the clinician to target questions about the patient's history. Prompted by a case with a prolonged incubation period, we sought to determine more precisely the incubation period of M. marinum infection. The MEDLINE database for the period 1966-1996 was searched for information regarding incubation period and type of exposure preceding M. marinum infection. Ninety-nine articles were identified, describing 652 cases. Forty cases had known incubation periods (median, 21 days; range, 5-270 days). Thirty-five percent of cases had an incubation period > or =30 days. Of 193 infections with known exposures, 49% were aquarium-related, 27.4% were related to fish or shellfish injuries, and 8.8% were related to injuries associated with saltwater or brackish water. Because the incubation period for cutaneous M. marinum infection can be prolonged, patients with atypical cutaneous infections should be questioned about high-risk exposures that may have occurred up to 9 months before the onset of symptoms. (+info)
(7/164) Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium marinum.
In vitro activities of 17 antibiotics against 53 clinical strains of Mycobacterium marinum, an atypical mycobacterium responsible for cutaneous infections, were determined using the reference agar dilution method. Rifampin and rifabutin were the most active drugs (MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited [MIC(90)s], 0.5 and 0.6 microgram/ml, respectively). MICs of minocycline (MIC(90), 4 microgram/ml), doxycycline (MIC(90), 16 microgram/ml), clarithromycin (MIC(90), 4 microgram/ml), sparfloxacin (MIC(90), 2 microgram/ml), moxifloxacin (MIC(90), 1 microgram/ml), imipenem (MIC(90), 8 microgram/ml), sulfamethoxazole (MIC(90), 8 microgram/ml) and amikacin (MIC(90), 4 microgram/ml) were close to the susceptibility breakpoints. MICs of isoniazid, ethambutol, trimethoprim, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin were above the concentrations usually obtained in vivo. For each drug, the MIC(50), geometric mean MIC, and modal MIC were very close, showing that all the strains had a similar susceptibility pattern. Percent agreement (within +/-1 log(2) dilution) between MICs yielded by the Etest method and by the agar dilution method used as reference were 83, 59, 43, and 24% for minocycline, rifampin, clarithromycin, and sparfloxacin, respectively. Reproducibility with the Etest was low, in contrast to that with the agar dilution method. In conclusion, M. marinum is a naturally multidrug-resistant species for which the agar dilution method is more accurate than the Etest for antibiotic susceptibility testing. (+info)
(8/164) Comparative genetic analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum reveals evidence of recent divergence.
Previous studies of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum have suggested a very close genetic relationship between these species (99.6% identity). However, these organisms are phenotypically distinct and cause diseases with very different pathologies. To investigate this apparent paradox, we compared 3,306 nucleotides from the partial sequences of eight housekeeping and structural genes derived from 18 M. ulcerans strains and 22 M. marinum strains. This analysis confirmed the close genetic relationship inferred from the 16S rRNA data, with nucleotide sequence identity ranging from 98.1 to 99.7%. The multilocus sequence analysis also confirmed previous genotype studies of M. ulcerans that have identified distinct genotypes within a geographical region. Single isolates of both M. ulcerans and M. marinum that were shown by the sequence analysis to be the most closely related were then selected for further study. One- and two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the architecture and size of the genome from each species. Genome sizes of approximately 4.4 and 4.6 Mb were obtained for M. ulcerans and M. marinum, respectively. Significant macrorestriction fragment polymorphism was observed between the species. However, hybridization analysis of DNA cleaved with more frequently cutting enzymes identified significant preservation of the flanking sequence at seven of the eight loci sequenced. The exception was the 16S rRNA locus. Two high-copy-number insertion sequences, IS2404 and IS2606, have recently been reported in M. ulcerans, and significantly, these elements are not present in M. marinum. Hybridization of the AseI restriction fragments from M. ulcerans with IS2404 and IS2606 indicated widespread genome distribution for both of these repeated sequences. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that M. ulcerans has recently diverged from M. marinum by the acquisition and concomitant loss of DNA in a manner analogous to the emergence of M. tuberculosis, where species diversity is being driven mainly by the activity of mobile DNA elements. (+info)