(1/57) Milk thistle, a herbal supplement, decreases the activity of CYP3A4 and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase in human hepatocyte cultures.

Milk thistle extract is one of the most commonly used nontraditional therapies, particularly in Germany. Milk thistle is known to contain a number of flavonolignans. We evaluated the effect of silymarin, on the activity of various hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocyte cultures. Treatment with silymarin (0.1 and 0.25 mM) significantly reduced the activity of CYP3A4 enzyme (by 50 and 100%, respectively) as determined by the formation of 6-beta-hydroxy testosterone and the activity of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A6/9) (by 65 and 100%, respectively) as measured by the formation of 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide. Silymarin (0.5 mM) also significantly decreased mitochondrial respiration as determined by MTT reduction in human hepatocytes. These observations point to the potential of silymarin to impair hepatic metabolism of certain coadministered drugs in humans. Indiscriminate use of herbal products may lead to altered pharmacokinetics of certain drugs and may result in increased toxicity of certain drugs.  (+info)

(2/57) Suppression of ethanol and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by extracts of Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium in rats.

In female SD rats that were injected with 4 g/kg BW ethanol p.o. followed by a 5 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) i.v. injection, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases (GPT) activity increased to about eight times that of normal rats. In this model, rats that had been fed a diet containing 1% Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium (HDF) extracts for fifteen days showed significantly lower serum GPT activity (380.0+/-58.2 IU/l) than the control group (3527.0+/-774.1 IU/l). HDF's efficacy was far superior to milk thistle in this model (2950.0+/-915.9 IU/l). When mouse macrophages were treated with HDF extracts at 50 microg/ml, TNF-alpha production induced by LPS was suppressed to about 10% of the control. Rat serum TNF-alpha levels induced by LPS was decreased to 58.7% of the control by administering 1000 mg/kg BW HDF extract p.o. These results indicate that HDF prevents alcohol-induced liver injury through the inhibition of TNF-alpha production.  (+info)

(3/57) Epidermal growth factor receptor mediates silibinin-induced cytotoxicity in a rat glioma cell line.

Silibinin, derived from milk thistle extract, has been shown to inhibit growth factor receptor-mediated mitogenic and cell survival signaling, and to alter cell cycle regulators. Alteration in pathways regulating cell growth likely account for silibinin's inhibition of tumor growth. Since the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key regulator in cell signaling pathways, in the present study we directly tested the hypothesis that the EGFR plays a key role in mediating silibinin cytotoxicity to cancer cells. We generated a cell line, 9L-EGFR, which stably expressed human EGFR; the parental rat glioma cell line, 9L, does not contain endogenous EGFR message or protein. Our results show that expression of EGFR was both necessary and sufficient for conferring toxicity in response to silibinin in 9L-EGFR cells. Addition of silibinin was shown to inhibit EGFR activation by EGF in 9L-EGFR cells. These studies support the hypothesis that silibinin toxicity to cancer cells involves the EGFR signaling pathway. The findings presented here provide a rationale for understanding the growth inhibition effect of silibinin in cancer cells, and warrant further investigation into the effect of silibinin on specific pathways of cell signaling mediated by the EGF receptor.  (+info)

(4/57) Silibinin causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells by regulating CDKI-CDK-cyclin cascade, and caspase 3 and PARP cleavages.

Bladder cancer is the fourth and eighth most common cancer in men and women in the USA, respectively. Flavonoid phytochemicals are being studied for both prevention and therapy of various human malignancies including bladder cancer. One such naturally occurring flavonoid is silibinin isolated from milk thistle. Here, we assessed the effect of silibinin on human bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell growth, cell cycle modulation and apoptosis induction, and associated molecular alterations, employing two different cell lines representing high-grade invasive tumor (TCC-SUP) and high-grade TCC (T-24) human bladder cancer. Silibinin treatment of these cells resulted in a significant dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition together with a G(1) arrest only at lower doses in TCC-SUP cells but at both lower and higher doses in T-24 cells; higher silibinin dose showed a G(2)/M arrest in TCC-SUP cells. In other studies, silibinin treatment strongly induced the expression of Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27, but resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins involved in G(1) progression. Silibinin treatment also showed an increased interaction between cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs)-CDKs and a decreased CDK kinase activity. Further, the G(2)/M arrest by silibinin in TCC-SUP cells was associated with a decrease in pCdc25c (Ser216), Cdc25c, pCdc2 (Tyr15), Cdc2 and cyclin B1 protein levels. In additional studies, silibinin showed a dose- and a time-dependent apoptotic death only in TCC-SUP cells that was associated with cleaved forms of caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Together, these results suggest that silibinin modulates CDKI-CDK-cyclin cascade and activates caspase 3 causing growth inhibition and apoptotic death of human TCC cells, providing a strong rationale for future studies evaluating preventive and/or intervention strategies for silibinin in bladder cancer pre-clinical models.  (+info)

(5/57) Oral silibinin inhibits lung tumor growth in athymic nude mice and forms a novel chemocombination with doxorubicin targeting nuclear factor kappaB-mediated inducible chemoresistance.

The acute and cumulative dose-related toxicity and drug resistance, mediated via nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB), of anthracycline anticancer drugs pose a major problem in cancer chemotherapy. Here, we report that oral silibinin (a flavanone) suppresses human non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 xenograft growth (P = 0.003) and enhances the therapeutic response (P < 0.05) of doxorubicin in athymic BALB/c nu/nu mice together with a strong prevention of doxorubicin-caused adverse health effects. Immunohistochemical analyses of tumors showed that silibinin and doxorubicin decrease (P < 0.001) proliferation index and vasculature and increase (P < 0.001) apoptosis; these effects were further enhanced (P < 0.001) in combination treatment. Pharmacologic dose of silibinin (60 mumol/L) achieved in animal study was biologically effective (P < 0.01 to 0.001, growth inhibition and apoptosis) in vitro in A549 cell culture together with an increased efficacy (P < 0.05 to 0.001) in doxorubicin (25 nmol/L) combination. Furthermore, doxorubicin increased NFkappaB DNA binding activity as one of the possible mechanisms for chemoresistance in A549 cells, which was inhibited by silibinin in combination treatment. Consistent with this, silibinin inhibited doxorubicin-caused increased translocation of p65 and p50 from cytosol to nucleus. Silibinin also inhibited cyclooxygenase-2, an NFkappaB target, in doxorubicin combination. These findings suggest that silibinin inhibits in vivo lung tumor growth and reduces systemic toxicity of doxorubicin with an enhanced therapeutic efficacy most likely via an inhibition of doxorubicin-induced chemoresistance involving NFkappaB signaling.  (+info)

(6/57) Milk thistle and prostate cancer: differential effects of pure flavonolignans from Silybum marianum on antiproliferative end points in human prostate carcinoma cells.

Extracts from the seeds of milk thistle, Silybum marianum, are known commonly as silibinin and silymarin and possess anticancer actions on human prostate carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Seven distinct flavonolignan compounds and a flavonoid have been isolated from commercial silymarin extracts. Most notably, two pairs of diastereomers, silybin A and silybin B and isosilybin A and isosilybin B, are among these compounds. In contrast, silibinin is composed only of a 1:1 mixture of silybin A and silybin B. With these isomers now isolated in quantities sufficient for biological studies, each pure compound was assessed for antiproliferative activities against LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 human prostate carcinoma cell lines. Isosilybin B was the most consistently potent suppressor of cell growth relative to either the other pure constituents or the commercial extracts. Isosilybin A and isosilybin B were also the most effective suppressors of prostate-specific antigen secretion by androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. Silymarin and silibinin were shown for the first time to suppress the activity of the DNA topoisomerase IIalpha gene promoter in DU145 cells and, among the pure compounds, isosilybin B was again the most effective. These findings are significant in that isosilybin B composes no more than 5% of silymarin and is absent from silibinin. Whereas several other more abundant flavonolignans do ultimately influence the same end points at higher exposure concentrations, these findings are suggestive that extracts enriched for isosilybin B, or isosilybin B alone, might possess improved potency in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.  (+info)

(7/57) A review of the bioavailability and clinical efficacy of milk thistle phytosome: a silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (Siliphos).

Certain of the water-soluble flavonoid molecules can be converted into lipid-compatible molecular complexes, aptly called phytosomes. Phytosomes are better able to transition from a hydrophilic environment into the lipid-friendly environment of the outer cell membrane, and from there into the cell, finally reaching the blood. The fruit of the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum, Family Asteraceae) contains flavonoids that are proven liver protectants. The standardized extract known as silymarin contains three flavonoids of the flavonol subclass. Silybin predominates, followed by silydianin and silychristin. Although silybin is the most potent of the flavonoids in milk thistle, similar to other flavonoids it is not well-absorbed. Silybin-phosphatidylcholine complexed as a phytosome provides significant liver protection and enhanced bioavailability over conventional silymarin.  (+info)

(8/57) Silybin and silymarin--new effects and applications.

This article aims to review critically literature published mainly within this millennium on the new and emerging applications of silymarin, the polyphenolic fraction from the seeds of Silybum marianum and its main component silybin. Silymarin and silybin used so far mostly as hepatoprotectants were shown to have other interesting activities as e.g., anticancer and canceroprotective. These activities were demonstrated in a large variety of illnesses of different organs as e.g., prostate, lungs, CNS, kidneys, pancreas and others. Besides the cytoprotective activity of silybin mediated by its antioxidative and radical-scavenging properties also new activities based on the specific receptor interaction were discovered--e.g., inhibition and modulation of drug transporters, P-glycoproteins, estrogenic receptors, nuclear receptors and some others. New derivatives of silybin open new ways to its therapeutic applications. Pharmacology dealing with optically pure silybin diastereomers may suggest new mechanisms of its action.  (+info)