The ostium of the recipient artery and the orifice of the donor artery must be clearly visualized for the establishment of microvascular anastomosis. Specially designed colored flexible cylindrical or T-shaped silicone rubber stents were made in various sizes (400 or 500 microns diameter and 5 mm length) and applied to bypass surgery in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease such as moyamoya disease and internal carotid artery occlusion. The colored flexible stents facilitated confirmation of the ostium of the artery even in patients with moyamoya disease and allowed precise microvascular anastomosis without problems caused by the stent. (+info)
(2/708) Controversies in the modern management of hydrosalpinx.
The management of hydrosalpinx is a difficult clinical problem. Surgical treatment includes fimbrioplasty for patients with fimbrial obstruction and salpingostomy to fashion a stoma in the distal Fallopian tube in patients with a damaged fimbrial end. Surgery is only suitable for a small thin-walled hydrosalpinx with healthy mucosa. These operations can be performed via laparoscopy or open microsurgery. The proper selection of patients for surgical treatment and of the type of surgical technique are essential to achieve good results. The results of open microsurgery and laparoscopic surgery are summarized. In general, the prognosis of surgery is poor; however, in well selected cases, good results can be achieved by an experienced surgeon. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) is the main line of treatment for infertility caused by hydrosalpinx. In 1991, our group was the first to report on fluid accumulation in the uterine cavity before embryo transfer as a possible hindrance for implantation. Later, several publications reported an association between patients with hydrosalpinx and a reduced pregnancy rate when treated by IVF. The cause of a low pregnancy rate could be due to mechanical, chemical or toxic effects of the tubal fluid on the endometrium preventing implantation. All these mechanisms are reviewed in detail. The literature is controversial concerning the effect of transvaginal aspiration of hydrosalpinx on the outcome of IVF. Several reports suggest that surgical correction of the hydrosalpinx may improve the outcome of IVF. Further studies are required to verify this assumption and to find out the most suitable surgical procedure and if there is a subgroup of patients who could benefit most from salpingectomy. (+info)
(3/708) Fertilization and pregnancy outcome with intracytoplasmic sperm injection for azoospermic men.
The evident ability of the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates regardless of semen characteristics has induced its application with spermatozoa surgically retrieved from azoospermic men. Here, ICSI outcome was analysed in 308 cases according to the cause of azoospermia; four additional cycles were with cases of necrozoospermia. All couples were genetically counselled and appropriately screened. Spermatozoa were retrieved by microsurgical epididymal aspiration or from testicular biopsies. Epididymal obstructions were considered congenital (n = 138) or acquired (n = 103), based on the aetiology. Testicular sperm cases were assessed according to the presence (n = 14) or absence (n = 53) of reproductive tract obstruction. The fertilization rate using fresh or cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa was 72.4% of 911 eggs for acquired obstructions, and 73.1% of 1524 eggs for congenital cases; with clinical pregnancy rates of 48.5% (50/103) and 61.6% (85/138) respectively. Spermatozoa from testicular biopsies fertilized 57.0% of 533 eggs in non-obstructive cases compared to 80.5% of 118 eggs (P = 0.0001) in obstructive azoospermia. The clinical pregnancy rate was 49.1% (26/53) for non-obstructive cases and 57.1% (8/14) for testicular spermatozoa obtained in obstructive azoospermia, including three established with frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa. In cases of obstructive azoospermia, fertilization and pregnancy rates with epididymal spermatozoa were higher than those achieved using spermatozoa obtained from the testes of men with non-obstructive azoospermia. (+info)
(4/708) Endoscope-assisted microsurgery for cerebral aneurysms.
A total of 66 patients with intracranial aneurysms were endoscopically assisted treated during a 3 years period. Among those were five individuals with giant aneurysms and 27 patients with aneurysms of the posterior circulation. The endoscope was used only for checking the anatomical structures surround the aneurysms in 16 cases. In 43 patients the aneurysm sac was also dissected under endoscopical control. Even the clipping procedure was performed in seven cases exclusively under endoscopical observation. Only one prematural rupture occurred intraoperatively during preparation of a basilar tip aneurysm. Postoperatively three individuals with aneurysms located in the posterior circulation were temporarily neurologically impaired, and one patient with a basilar tip aneurysm suffered from a surgical related hemiparesis. The use of an endoscope in aneurysm surgery improves the visualization of the aneurysm itself and the surrounding anatomical structures. This minimizes the retraction of the nervous structures and leads to a reduced morbidity. (+info)
(5/708) Role of a perivascular ultrasonic micro-flow probe in aneurysm surgery.
There are various intraoperative monitoring devices available today for helping the neurosurgeons the progress of the intracranial aneurysm surgery. Till now the intraoperative ultrasonic blood flow probes has been used only in vascular, cardiac, and transplant surgery. In the University of Illinois at Chicago we have been able to use the same technology in various neurovascular surgeries. We describe the use of the ultrasonic perivascular blood flow probes in patients operated for clipping of intracranial aneurysm. The use of this perivascular micro-flow probe and its importance in cerebral aneurysm will be discussed. (+info)
(6/708) Microsurgical resection of incompletely obliterated intracranial arteriovenous malformations following stereotactic radiosurgery.
Radiosurgery is effective in obliterating small arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), but less successful in thrombosing larger AVMs. This study reviewed patients who underwent surgical resection of their large AVMs following failed radiosurgical obliteration. AVMs from 36 patients (aged 7 to 64 years, mean 29.9) were surgically resected 1 to 11 years after radiosurgery. Initial AVM volumes were 0.7 to 117 cm3 (mean 21.6 cm3), and radiosurgical doses ranged from 4.6 to 45 Gray equivalent (GyE) (mean 21.1 GyE). Thirty AVMs (83%) were located in eloquent tissue. Venous drainage was deep (14), superficial (13), or both (9). Spetzler grades were II (2), III (12), IV (18), and V (4). Nine patients suffered rehemorrhage after radiosurgery but prior to surgery, while three patients developed radiation necrosis. Twenty-seven patients underwent endovascular embolization prior to surgery. During microsurgical resection, the AVMs were found to be significantly less vascular and more easily resected, compared to AVMs in patients who had not received radiosurgery. Histology showed endothelial proliferation with hyaline and mineralization in vessel walls. Partial or complete thrombosis of some AVM vessels, and evidence of vessel and brain necrosis were noted in many cases. Clinical outcome was excellent or good in 34 cases, with two patients dying of rebleeding from residual AVM. Five patients were neurologically worse following microsurgical resection. Final outcome was largely related to the pretreatment grade. Radiosurgery several years prior to surgical resection appears useful in treating unusually large and complex AVMs. (+info)
(7/708) Treatment strategies and results in spinal vascular malformations.
We report the treatment strategies and results of 70 patients with spinal vascular malformations. Forty-six had dural arteriovenous fistulas, 12 spinal cavernous angiomas, nine intramedullary angiomas, and three intradural arteriovenous fistulas. The diagnosis was established for cavernomas by magnetic resonance images only and in the other cases by selective spinal angiography in patients whose neurological deficits, myelograms or magnetic resonance images suggested the presence of a spinal vascular malformation. All patients had symptomatic vascular malformations and were treated microsurgically. Intramedullary angiomas were operated when embolization seemed too dangerous or impossible and when they had a contact to the dorsal or lateral surface of the spinal cord. All but one were completely resected. In one angioma a small ventral residual fistula area was left. Complete obliteration of all fistulas was achieved. The cavernomas were primarily resected. Apart from one postoperative permanent deterioration with a paresis of the left arm in a patient with an intramedullary angioma, 16 cases presented only a transitory worsening of their neurological status after surgery. The long-term outcome of all these patients was good. Five patients had to be operated on again: three patients showed difficult localizations of dural fistulas which were still visible in the postoperative angiograms, one patient suffered a spinal epidural hematoma, and another patient showed a cerebrospinal fluid accumulation. We conclude that spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas, small intradural fistulas, spinal cavernomas, and symptomatic spinal angiomas with contact to the lateral or dorsal surface can be treated microsurgically with low perioperative morbidity. (+info)
(8/708) No differences in outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh or with frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa.
This retrospective consecutive case series aimed at comparing the results of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with fresh and with frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa obtained after microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) in 162 couples. These couples were suffering from infertility because of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (n = 109), failed microsurgical reversal for vasectomy or postinfectious epididymal obstruction (n = 44), irreparable epididymal obstruction (n = 4), ejaculatory duct obstruction (n = 2) or anejaculation (n = 3). Overall, 176 MESA procedures were performed in the husbands, followed by 275ICSI procedures with either fresh (n = 157) or frozen-thawed (n = 118) epididymal spermatozoa. No significant differences were observed in the parameters of spermatozoa used either freshly or frozen-thawed. In the fresh epididymal sperm group 59.4% of all the injected oocytes fertilized normally as compared to 56.2% of all injected oocytes in the frozen-thawed epididymal sperm group, and embryonic development was comparable between the two groups. A total of 245 transfers were performed: 145 after the use of fresh epididymal spermatozoa and 100 after the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The overall pregnancy rate per ICSI cycle was significantly lower when frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa were used (26.3 versus 39.5%). However, no significant differences were found either in clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates or in implantation rates. There were no differences in pregnancy outcome. In patients suspected of having obstructive azoospermia with no work-up or an incomplete one, MESA is the preferred method for sperm recovery because a full scrotal exploration can be performed and, whenever indicated, a vasoepididymostomy may be performed concomitantly. Recovery of epididymal spermatozoa for cryopreservation during a diagnostic procedure is certainly a valid option in these patients since ICSI may be performed later or even in another centre using the frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa without jeopardizing the ICSI success rate. (+info)