We determined biovars and serotypes of 154 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from clinical and environmental sources from different areas of Spain. All clinical isolates belonged to C. neoformans var. neoformans. Serotypes showed an irregular distribution. C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B was isolated from necropsy specimens from goats with pulmonary disease. (+info)
(2/861) Production of specific monoclonal antibodies to Aspergillus species and their use in immunohistochemical identification of aspergillosis.
Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining. (+info)
(3/861) Severe impairment in early host defense against Candida albicans in mice deficient in myeloperoxidase.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride ion to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is used for microbial killing by phagocytic cells. Despite the important role of MPO in host defense, however, MPO deficiency is relatively common in humans, and most of these individuals are in good health. To define the in vivo role of MPO, we have generated by gene targeting mice having no MPO activity in their neutrophils and monocytes. The mice without MPO developed normally, were fertile, and showed normal clearance of intraperitoneal Staphylococcus aureus. However, they showed increased susceptibility to pneumonia and death following intratracheal infection with Candida albicans. Furthermore, the lack of MPO significantly enhanced the dissemination of intraperitoneally injected C. albicans into various organs during the first 7 days. Thus, MPO is important for early host defense against fungal infection, and the inability to generate HOCl cannot be compensated for by other oxygen-dependent systems in vivo in mice. The mutant mice serve as a model for studying pulmonary and systemic candidiasis. (+info)
(4/861) Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection presenting as a right upper lobe mass in an HIV positive patient.
A 35 year old HIV positive patient from Hong Kong presented with a fever, cough and a skin rash in association with a lung mass, all of which were due to disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection. He made a good response to antifungal therapy. The lung mass is a previously undescribed pulmonary manifestation of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection. Infections with this fungus should be suspected in any patient with HIV and respiratory symptoms who has visited southeast Asia. (+info)
(5/861) Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.
Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (+info)
(6/861) Liposomal amphotericin (AmBisome) in the prophylaxis of fungal infections in neutropenic patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Liposomal amphotericin (AmBisome) 2 mg/kg three times weekly was compared with placebo as prophylaxis against fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for haematological malignancies. Prophylaxis began on day 1 of chemotherapy and continued until neutrophils regenerated or infection was suspected. Of 161 evaluable patients, 74 received AmBisome and 87 received placebo. Proven fungal infections developed in no patients on AmBisome and in three on placebo (3.4%) (P = NS). Suspected fungal infections requiring intervention with systemic antifungal therapy (usually amphotericin B) occurred in 31 patients on AmBisome (42%) and in 40 on placebo (46%) (P = NS). Suspected deep-seated infections developed in 21 (28.3%) and 31 (35.6%) patients, respectively (P = NS). Time to develop a suspected or proven deep-seated infection showed a trend in favour of AmBisome (P = 0.11). Fifty patients had fungal colonisation (48 with Candida spp, two with Aspergillus spp) of at least one body site during prophylaxis; 15 patients while receiving AmBisome (20%) and 35 while on placebo (40%) (P < 0.01). Time to colonisation was significantly delayed in the group receiving AmBisome (P < 0.05). Treatment-related toxicity was modest and no additional toxicity was observed in patients receiving AmBisome. AmBisome 2 mg/kg three times weekly is safe and reduces fungal colonisation in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy or BMT. However, despite encouraging trends, prophylactic AmBisome did not lead to a significant reduction in fungal infection or in requirement for systemic antifungal therapy. (+info)
(7/861) Thoracic blastomycosis and empyema.
Blastomycosis is endemic in river valley areas of the southeastern and Midwestern United States. Pulmonary manifestations include chronic cough and pleuritic pain. Radiographic appearance of the infection can mimic bronchogenic lung carcinoma. Pleural effusion is rarely associated with this pulmonary infection, and empyema has not been previously reported. We report a case of pulmonary and pleural Blastomyces dermatitidis infection presenting as empyema thoracis. Diagnosis and treatment were attained with video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) pleural and lung biopsy and debridement. (+info)
(8/861) The first imported case of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in Korea.
Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease found in the southwestern part of North America. Travellers who visit the endemic area may carry the infection. We report a case of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in a 74-year-old woman. She was healthy before visiting Arizona, U.S.A twice. After returning home, she began to complain of intermittent dry coughing. The symptom was mild, however, and she was treated symptomatically. Later a chest radiograph, which was taken 4 years after the onset of the symptom, showed a solitary pulmonary nodule in the right upper lobe. By percutaneous needle aspiration, a few clusters of atypical cells were noted in the necrotic background. A right upper and middle lobectomy was done. A 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 cm sized tan nodule was present in otherwise normal lung parenchyma. Microscopically, the nodule consisted of aggregates of multiple solid granulomas inside of which was mostly necrotic. Neutrophils and nuclear debris were scattered along the periphery of the necrotic foci. Numerous multinucleated giant cells were associated with the granulomas. In the necrotic area, mature spherules of Coccidioides immitis, which were 30-100 microm in diameter, were present. They contained numerous endospores which ranged from 5 to 15 microm and were also noted in multinucleated giant cells. The diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis was made. She is doing well after the resection. (+info)