(1/714) Effects of vanadium complexes with organic ligands on glucose metabolism: a comparison study in diabetic rats.
1. Vanadium compounds can mimic actions of insulin through alternative signalling pathways. The effects of three organic vanadium compounds were studied in non-ketotic, streptozotocin-diabetic rats: vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAc), vanadyl 3-ethylacetylacetonate (VEt), and bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (VM). A simple inorganic vanadium salt, vanadyl sulphate (VS) was also studied. 2. Oral administration of the three organic vanadium compounds (125 mg vanadium element 1(-1) in drinking fluids) for up to 3 months induced a faster and larger fall in glycemia (VAc being the most potent) than VS. Glucosuria and tolerance to a glucose load were improved accordingly. 3. Activities and mRNA levels of key glycolytic enzymes (glucokinase and L-type pyruvate kinase) which are suppressed in the diabetic liver, were restored by vanadium treatment. The organic forms showed greater efficacy than VS, especially VAc. 4. VAc rats exhibited the highest levels of plasma or tissue vanadium, most likely due to a greater intestinal absorption. However, VAc retained its potency when given as a single i.p. injection to diabetic rats. Moreover, there was no relationship between plasma or tissue vanadium levels and any parameters of glucose homeostasis and hepatic glucose metabolism. Thus, these data suggest that differences in potency between compounds are due to differences in their insulin-like properties. 5. There was no marked toxicity observed on hepatic or renal function. However, diarrhoea occurred in 50% of rats chronically treated with VS, but not in those receiving the organic compounds. 6. In conclusion, organic vanadium compounds, in particular VAc, correct the hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glycolysis of diabetic rats more safely and potently than VS. This is not simply due to improved intestinal absorption, indicating more potent insulin-like properties. (+info)
(2/714) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves blood glucose control and alleviates fasting hyperglycemia in C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) mice.
Systemic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreases nonfasted blood glucose in obese, non-insulin-dependent diabetic C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) (db/db) mice, with a concomitant decrease in body weight. By measuring percent HbA1c in BDNF-treated and pair-fed animals, we show that the effects of BDNF on nonfasted blood glucose levels are not caused by decreased food intake but reflect a significant improvement in blood glucose control. Furthermore, once established, this effect can persist for weeks after cessation of BDNF treatment. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed to examine the effects of BDNF on blood glucose control in the fasted state and after an oral glucose challenge. BDNF treatment normalized fasting blood glucose from initially hyperglycemic levels and also showed evidence for beneficial, although less marked, effects on the ability to remove exogenous glucose from blood. One means to lower fasting blood glucose is to reduce the glucose output of peripheral tissues that normally play a part in the maintenance of fasting hyperglycemia. Because the liver is the major endogenous source of glucose in blood during fasting, and because hepatic weight and glucose output are increased in type 2 diabetes, we evaluated the effects of BDNF on liver tissue. BDNF reduced the hepatomegaly present in db/db mice, in association with reduced liver glycogen and reduced liver enzyme activity in serum, supporting the possible involvement of liver tissue in the mechanism of action for BDNF. (+info)
(3/714) Resistance to hepatic action of vasopressin in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice.
1. Fatty acid synthesis, measured in the perfused liver of genetically obese (ob/ob) mice with 3H2O or [14C]actate, did not show the inhibition by [8-arginine]vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) that is observed in livers from normal mice. 2. Hepatic glycogen breakdown in obese mice was stimuulated by vasopressin, but not as extensively as in lean mice. 3. If obese mice received a restricted amount of food, then fatty acid synthesis still did not respond to vasopressin, but glycogen breakdown was fully stimulated. 4. Cholesterol synthesis was not inhibited by vasopressin in livers from obese mice. 5. Vasopressin inhibited fatty acid synthesis in intact lean mice, but not in obese animals. 6. These results suggest that genetic obesity could be due to an inborn error within the mechanisms (other than adenylate cyclase) which mediate responses to extracellular effectors. (+info)
(4/714) Carcass glycogen as a potential source of glucose during short-term starvation.
In small rats deprived of food for 19h (or 43h), 36% (or 39%) of the glycogen that disappeared was lost from the carcass and 64% (or 61%) from liver. Carcass glycogen is potentially a substantial source of glucose during short-term starvation via the Cori cycle. (+info)
(5/714) Kinetics of the interaction of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase with glycogen.
The kinetics of the interaction of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase with glycogen was studied by the turbidimetric method at pH 6.8 and 8.2. Binding of phosphorylase kinase by glycogen occurs only in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. The initial rate of complex formation is proportional to the enzyme and polysaccharide concentration; this suggests the formation of a complex with 1:1 stoichiometry in the initial step of phosphorylase kinase binding by glycogen. The kinetic data suggest that phosphorylase kinase substrate--glycogen phosphorylase b--favors the binding of phosphorylase kinase with glycogen. This conclusion is supported by direct experiments on the influence of phosphorylase b on the interaction of phosphorylase kinase with glycogen using analytical sedimentation analysis. The kinetic curves of the formation of the complex of phosphorylase kinase with glycogen obtained in the presence of ATP are characterized by a lag period. Preincubation of phosphorylase kinase with ATP in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ causes the complete disappearance of the lag period. On changing the pH from 6.8 to 8.2, the rate of phosphorylase kinase binding by glycogen is appreciably increased, and complex formation becomes possible even in the absence of Mg2+. A model of phosphorylase kinase and phosphorylase b adsorption on the surface of the glycogen particle explaining the increase in the strength of phosphorylase kinase binding with glycogen in the presence of phosphorylase b is proposed. (+info)
(6/714) Effect of a selective rise in hepatic artery insulin on hepatic glucose production in the conscious dog.
In the present study we compared the hepatic effects of a selective increase in hepatic sinusoidal insulin brought about by insulin infusion into the hepatic artery with those resulting from insulin infusion into the portal vein. A pancreatic clamp was used to control the endocrine pancreas in conscious overnight-fasted dogs. In the control period, insulin was infused via peripheral vein and the portal vein. After the 40-min basal period, there was a 180-min test period during which the peripheral insulin infusion was stopped and an additional 1.2 pmol. kg-1. min-1 of insulin was infused into the hepatic artery (HART, n = 5) or the portal vein (PORT, n = 5, data published previously). In the HART group, the calculated hepatic sinusoidal insulin level increased from 99 +/- 20 (basal) to 165 +/- 21 pmol/l (last 30 min). The calculated hepatic artery insulin concentration rose from 50 +/- 8 (basal) to 289 +/- 19 pmol/l (last 30 min). However, the overall arterial (50 +/- 8 pmol/l) and portal vein insulin levels (118 +/- 24 pmol/l) did not change over the course of the experiment. In the PORT group, the calculated hepatic sinusoidal insulin level increased from 94 +/- 30 (basal) to 156 +/- 33 pmol/l (last 30 min). The portal insulin rose from 108 +/- 42 (basal) to 192 +/- 42 pmol/l (last 30 min), whereas the overall arterial insulin (54 +/- 6 pmol/l) was unaltered during the study. In both groups hepatic sinusoidal glucagon levels remained unchanged, and euglycemia was maintained by peripheral glucose infusion. In the HART group, net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) was suppressed from 9.6 +/- 2.1 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (basal) to 4.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (15 min) and eventually fell to 3.5 +/- 0.8 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (last 30 min, P < 0.05). In the PORT group, NHGO dropped quickly (P < 0.05) from 10.0 +/- 0.9 (basal) to 7.8 +/- 1.6 (15 min) and eventually reached 3.1 +/- 1.1 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (last 30 min). Thus NHGO decreases in response to a selective increase in hepatic sinusoidal insulin, regardless of whether it comes about because of hyperinsulinemia in the hepatic artery or portal vein. (+info)
(7/714) Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise.
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of glutamine in promoting whole body carbohydrate storage and muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Postabsorptive subjects completed a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol, then consumed 330 ml of one of three drinks, 18.5% (wt/vol) glucose polymer solution, 8 g glutamine in 330 ml glucose polymer solution, or 8 g glutamine in 330 ml placebo, and also received a primed constant infusion of [1-13C]glucose for 2 h. Plasma glutamine concentration was increased after consumption of the glutamine drinks (0.7-1.1 mM, P < 0.05). In the second hour of recovery, whole body nonoxidative glucose disposal was increased by 25% after consumption of glutamine in addition to the glucose polymer (4.48 +/- 0.61 vs. 3.59 +/- 0.18 mmol/kg, P < 0.05). Oral glutamine alone promoted storage of muscle glycogen to an extent similar to oral glucose polymer. Ingestion of glutamine and glucose polymer together promoted the storage of carbohydrate outside of skeletal muscle, the most feasible site being the liver. (+info)
(8/714) Failure of autoresuscitation in weanling mice: significance of cardiac glycogen and heart rate regulation.
"Autoresuscitation" (AR) is the spontaneous recovery from hypoxic apnea by gasping. We examined aspects of heart function in two situations: 1) the maturationally acquired failure of AR that is characteristic of SWR, but not BALB/c, weanling mice and 2) AR failure in BALB/c mice induced by repeated exposures to anoxia. We determined maturational changes in heart and liver glycogen. Unlike liver glycogen levels, heart glycogen levels in SWR mice differed from those in BALB/c mice. They were consistently much lower throughout maturation and reached a nadir during the brief period when SWR weanling mice are vulnerable to AR failure. Also, rate of cardiac glycogen utilization in vulnerable SWR mice was lower than that of same-aged BALB/c mice and was nil during the latter one-half of the gasping stage when heart function is critical for AR success. Therefore, because glycogen utilization reflects cardiac work, heart failure could explain AR failure in SWR weanlings. Additionally, the increase in hypoxic heart rate that occurs with maturation is developmentally delayed in SWR mice, and this may contribute to their AR failure. Cardiac glycogen was not fully depleted in BALB/c mice during repeated anoxic exposures, indicating other reasons for AR failure. We view these findings as a potential model for the age-related peak in incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. (+info)