Inactivation of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) by gene-targeting results in mice that develop maturity-onset obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia. These phenotypes resemble common forms of human obesity, which are late-onset and frequently accompanied by NIDDM. It is not clear whether sequence variation of the MC4-R gene contributes to obesity in humans. Therefore, we examined the human MC4-R gene polymorphism in 190 individuals ascertained on obesity status. Three allelic variants were identified, including two novel ones, Thr112Met and Ile137Thr. To analyze possible functional alterations, the variants were cloned and expressed in vitro and compared with the wild-type receptor. One of the novel variants, Ile137Thr, identified in an extremely obese proband (BMI 57), was found to be severely impaired in ligand binding and signaling, raising the possibility that it may contribute to development of obesity. Furthermore, our results also suggest that sequence polymorphism in the MC4-R coding region is unlikely to be a common cause of obesity in the population studied, given the low frequency of functionally significant mutations. (+info)
(2/1389) Basolateral sorting of furin in MDCK cells requires a phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with an acidic amino acid cluster.
Furin is a subtilisin-related endoprotease which processes a wide range of bioactive proteins. Furin is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where proteolytic activation of many precursor proteins takes place. A significant fraction of furin, however, cycles among the TGN, the plasma membrane, and endosomes, indicating that the accumulation in the TGN reflects a dynamic localization process. The cytosolic domain of furin is necessary and sufficient for TGN localization, and two signals are responsible for retrieval of furin to the TGN. A tyrosine-based (YKGL) motif mediates internalization of furin from the cell surface into endosomes. An acidic cluster that is part of two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites (SDSEEDE) is then responsible for retrieval of furin from endosomes to the TGN. In addition, the acidic EEDE sequence also mediates endocytic activity. Here, we analyzed the sorting of furin in polarized epithelial cells. We show that furin is delivered to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells, from where a significant fraction of the protein can return to the TGN. A phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with the acidic EEDE cluster is required for basolateral sorting and constitutes a novel signal regulating intracellular traffic of furin. (+info)
(3/1389) Identification of a Leu-lle internalization motif within the cytoplasmic domain of the leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor.
Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signals via a heterodimeric receptor complex comprised of the LIF receptor (LIFR) and the interleukin (IL)-6 signal transducer gp130. Upon binding to its cognate receptor LIF is internalized. In this study, we show that the LIFR is endocytosed independently of gp130. By using a heterochimaeric receptor system we identified a dileucine-based internalization motif within the cytoplasmic domain of the LIFR. Our findings suggest that a heterodimeric LIFR/gp130 complex and homodimeric gp130/gp130 complex are endocytosed via distinct internalization signals. (+info)
(4/1389) Role of bkdR, a transcriptional activator of the sigL-dependent isoleucine and valine degradation pathway in Bacillus subtilis.
A new gene, bkdR (formerly called yqiR), encoding a regulator with a central (catalytic) domain was found in Bacillus subtilis. This gene controls the utilization of isoleucine and valine as sole nitrogen sources. Seven genes, previously called yqiS, yqiT, yqiU, yqiV, bfmBAA, bfmBAB, and bfmBB and now referred to as ptb, bcd, buk, lpd, bkdA1, bkdA2, and bkdB, are located downstream from the bkdR gene in B. subtilis. The products of these genes are similar to phosphate butyryl coenzyme A transferase, leucine dehydrogenase, butyrate kinase, and four components of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex: E3 (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), E1alpha (dehydrogenase), E1beta (decarboxylase), and E2 (dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase). Isoleucine and valine utilization was abolished in bcd and bkdR null mutants of B. subtilis. The seven genes appear to be organized as an operon, bkd, transcribed from a -12, -24 promoter. The expression of the bkd operon was induced by the presence of isoleucine or valine in the growth medium and depended upon the presence of the sigma factor SigL, a member of the sigma 54 family. Transcription of this operon was abolished in strains containing a null mutation in the regulatory gene bkdR. Deletion analysis showed that upstream activating sequences are involved in the expression of the bkd operon and are probably the target of bkdR. Transcription of the bkd operon is also negatively controlled by CodY, a global regulator of gene expression in response to nutritional conditions. (+info)
(5/1389) Demonstration of a new mammalian isoleucine catabolic pathway yielding an Rseries of metabolites.
1. Normal human urine contains small amounts (less than 4 mg/g of creatinine) of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid, formed, we believe, by a previously undisclosed endogenous catabolic pathway for the oxidation of a newly described series of R metabolites of isoleucine. 2. Urinary excretion of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid is variably increased in defects of isoleucine oxidation at distal steps in the catabolic pathway (3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase deficiency and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency) and is diminished when proximal steps of the oxidative pathway are blocked as in branched-chain oxo acid decarboxylase deficiency ('maple-syrup-urine' disease). 3. Precursors of R-pathway metabolites [R(-)-2-methylbutyrate and 2-ethylacrylate ] lead to increased 2-ethylhydracrylate excretion in the mammal(rat, rabbit and dog); the corresponding S metabolites [S(+)-2-methylbutyric acid and tiglic acid ], when given in equimolar amounts, have little effect on its excretion, suggesting that little or no interconversion between S and R metabolites occurs in vivo. 4. Studies with 2H-labelled precursors indicate that conversion of R 2-methylbutyrate into 2-ethylhydracrylic acid occurs by a direct pathway (apparently via 2-ethylacrylic acid). 5. The further oxidation of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid to ethylmalonic acid was demonstrated, and may be analogous to S-metabolite oxidation via methyl malonate. 6. Valine metabolites do not interact with the R=isoleucine pathway under the conditions of these experiments in vivo. (+info)
(6/1389) Conformational change in the human glucocorticoid receptor induced by ligand binding is altered by mutation of isoleucine 747 by a threonine.
Limited proteolysis experiments were performed to study conformation changes induced by ligand binding on in vitro produced wild-type and I747T mutant glucocorticoid receptors. Dexamethasone-induced conformational changes were characterized by two resistant proteolysis fragments of 30 and 27 kDa. Although dexamethasone binding affinity was only slightly altered by the I747T substitution (Roux, S., Terouanne, B., Balaguer, P., Loffreda-Jausons, N., Pons, M., Chambon, P., Gronemeyer, H., and Nicolas, J.-C. (1996) Mol. Endocrinol. 10, 1214-1226), higher dexamethasone concentrations were required to obtain the same proteolysis pattern. This difference was less marked when proteolysis experiments were conducted at 0 degrees C, indicating that a step of the conformational change after ligand binding was affected by the mutation. In contrast, RU486 binding to the wild-type receptor induced a different conformational change that was not affected by the mutation. Analysis of proteolysis fragments obtained in the presence of dexamethasone or RU486 indicated that the RU486-induced conformational change affected the C-terminal part of the ligand binding domain differently. These data suggest that the ligand-induced conformational change occurs via a multistep process. In the first step, characterized by compaction of the ligand binding domain, the mutation has no effect. The second step, which stabilizes the activated conformation and does not occur at 4 degrees C, seems to be a key element in the activation process that can be altered by the mutation. This step could involve modification of the helix H12 position, explaining why the conformation induced by RU486 is not affected by the mutation. (+info)
(7/1389) Different targets for the fragile X-related proteins revealed by their distinct nuclear localizations.
Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP and its structural homologues FXR1P and FXR2P form a family of RNA-binding proteins (FXR proteins). The three proteins associate with polyribosomes as cytoplasmic mRNP particles. Here we show that small amounts of FMRP, FXR1P and FXR2P shuttle between cytoplasm and nucleus. Mutant FMRP of a severely affected fragile X patient (FMRPI304N) does not associate with polyribosomes and shuttles more frequently than normal FMRP, indicating that the association with polyribosomes regulates the shuttling process. Using leptomycin B we demonstrate that transport of the FXR proteins out of the nucleus is mediated by the export receptor exportin1. Finally, inactivation of the nuclear export signal in two FXR proteins shows that FMRP shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, while FXR2P shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleolus. Therefore, molecular dissection of the shuttling routes used by the FXR proteins suggests that they transport different RNAs. (+info)
(8/1389) cdc25A is necessary but not sufficient for optimal c-myc-induced apoptosis and cell proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Increasing evidence indicates that the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis are linked. The c-myc proto-oncogene is induced early after cell-cycle entry in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro and after arterial injury and regulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Although both proliferation and apoptosis are likely to be mediated via transcriptional activation of target genes, few c-myc targets have been identified. Therefore, the recent identification that cdc25A, a cell-cycle phosphatase involved in G1 progression, is transcriptionally activated by c-myc and regulates c-myc-induced apoptosis has suggested that cdc25A may be the principal mediator of c-myc in VSMCs. We examined cdc25A regulation of c-myc-induced proliferation and apoptosis by expressing cdc25A or antisense cdc25A in primary rat VSMCs or in VSMCs expressing deregulated c-myc or adenovirus E1A. Ectopic c-myc increased cdc25A expression, but cdc25A was still responsive to serum components, which indicated that c-myc alone is not the main determinant of cdc25A expression. Antisense cdc25A inhibited c-myc-induced proliferation and apoptosis; however, drug and metabolic blocks indicated that this effect was limited to G1. Ectopic cdc25A augmented the proproliferative and proapoptotic action of c-myc but did not increase cell proliferation or apoptosis in the absence of ectopic c-myc. In contrast, E1A/E2F-induced apoptosis was independent of cdc25A. We conclude that cdc25A expression modulates the ability of c-myc to induce apoptosis in G1. However, cdc25A alone does not induce apoptosis and cannot substitute for c-myc in VSMCs. Additional targets of c-myc are therefore involved in apoptosis of both G1 and post-G1 VSMCs. (+info)