We report a case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum in a 19-year-old male who had developed high fever, jaundice, and hepatomegaly after acupuncture therapy with small gold needles. Anaerobic, non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli were isolated from his blood and finally identified as B. longum. He recovered completely after treatment with ticarcillin and metronidazole. To our knowledge, this is the first report of incidental sepsis caused by B. longum. (+info)
(2/360) Neuroblastoma metastatic to the liver in infants.
Four infants are described who presented with rapid enlargement of the liver. This was found to be due to neuroblastoma which had metastasized to the liver; the condition was associated with high levels of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA). In 3 infants the primary tumour was in the adrenal gland and in one it was not identified. One infant died after laparotomy and 2 infants survive disease free with normal VMA levels, one after adrenalectomy and hepatic irradiation and one after a short course of chemotherapy. The fourth patient responded initially to hepatic irradiation and chemotherapy, but relapsed 2 years later with recurrent disease; at the same time the VMA level which had been normal, again rose. The importance of screening for an abnormal VMA level in any infant with a rapidly enlarging liver in order to obtain an early diagnosis is stressed. Careful follow-up, with serial VMA estimations, is essential to detect recurrent disease. The prognosis for some infants with this distribution of neuroblastoma which has metastasized to the liver, but not to the bones or oribt, is good. (+info)
(3/360) Combined liver-spleen-kidney scintigraphy and subsequent subtraction of the kidney scintiphotograph in the evaluation of displaced kidney.
The displacement of kidney was studied by using the combined liver-spleen-kidney scintigraphy and the subsequent subtraction of the kidney scintiphotograph to leave the liver-spleen scintiphotograph alone. A suprarenal mass was shown as cold spot between the liver and right kidney on the combined study. When the liver scintiphotograph and kidney scintiphotograph were over-lapped and the differential diagnosis was difficult, the subsequent subtraction of the kidney scintiphotograph was useful in the diagnosis of the enlarged liver. (+info)
(4/360) Cytokine production in acute versus chronic human Schistosomiasis mansoni: the cross-regulatory role of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 in the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenocytes to parasite antigens.
The contribution of interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon (IFN)-gamma to the regulation of type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses was investigated in Brazilians with different clinical forms of schistosomiasis mansoni. Cells from members of a family with acute intestinal schistosomiasis responded to schistosomal soluble egg antigen (SEA) or soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) with greater amounts of IFN-gamma than did cells from several patients with chronic intestinal schistosomiasis; IL-10 levels were similar. Neutralization of IL-10 had no effect on the SEA-specific IFN-gamma response in patients with acute infection, whereas SWAP-induced IFN-gamma was increased in both groups. Anti-IL-10 also up-regulated SEA-specific IFN-gamma protein and mRNA responses in most splenocyte cultures from hepatosplenic schistosomiasis patients but had no effect on antigen-specific IL-4 or IL-5 production. Neutralization of IFN-gamma resulted in a comparable increase in SWAP-specific IL-10 and IL-5, while IL-4 was not affected. These studies demonstrate that early disease in schistosomiasis is associated with a significant IFN-gamma response and that IL-10 contributes to the suppression of that response during both early and chronic infection. (+info)
(5/360) Angiogenesis and hematopoiesis induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded interleukin-6.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also known as human herpesvirus 8 [HHV-8]) is a herpesvirus linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and a proportion of Castleman's disease. KSHV encodes viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), which is structurally homologous to human and murine IL-6. The biological activities of vIL-6 are largely unknown. To gain insight into the biology of vIL-6, we expressed vIL-6 in murine fibroblasts NIH3T3 cells and inoculated stable vIL-6-producing clones into athymic mice. vIL-6 was detected selectively in the blood of mice injected with vIL-6-expressing clones. Compared with controls, vIL-6-positive mice displayed increased hematopoiesis in the myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages; plasmacytosis in spleen and lymph nodes; hepatosplenomegaly; and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. vIL-6-expressing NIH3T3 cells gave rise to tumors more rapidly than did control cells, and vIL-6-positive tumors were more vascularized than controls. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected at higher levels in the culture supernatant of vIL-6-expressing cells compared with controls, and immunohistochemical staining detected VEGF in spleen, lymph nodes, and tumor tissues from mice bearing vIL-6-producing tumors but not control tumors. Thus, vIL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine that promotes hematopoiesis, plasmacytosis, and angiogenesis. Through these functions, vIL-6 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of certain KSHV-associated disorders. (+info)
(6/360) Decreased apoptosis as a mechanism for hepatomegaly in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in both humans and animals leads to structural and functional changes including hepatomegaly. This study examined hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and apoptosis, three basic aspects of tissue growth, in livers of Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats made diabetic by iv injection of streptozotocin 8, 30, or 90 days previously. Immunohistochemical measurement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen revealed that hepatic DNA labeling indices were similar in normal control animals and diabetic rats 30 or 90 days post diabetic induction, but were reduced to 45 to 50% of control in insulin-treated diabetic animals, perhaps due to altered receptor activity or to partial insulin resistance, as reported previously. Flow cytometry indicated a 613% increase in diploid hepatocytes in the livers of diabetic rats 30 days after the onset of diabetes, compared to control. Diabetic livers contained 29% fewer tetraploid cells, 81% fewer octaploid cells, and 20% more binucleated hepatocytes than normal controls. At 90 days, the overall smaller size of hepatocytes in diabetic tissue was evidenced by more cells per area. Insulin treatment prevented some of these changes, but did not restore ploidy to a normal distribution. Mitosis, while 300% of normal at 8 days after streptozotocin injection, was reduced to 25% of normal after 90 days of diabetes. The morphological evidence of apoptosis was decreased by 23% to 76% in the diabetic liver, and was reversed but not normalized by insulin treatment. This study indicates that the hepatomegaly observed in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes may be due primarily to early hyperplasia, and later decreased apoptosis. (+info)
(7/360) Improvement of amyloid-related symptoms after autologous stem cell transplantation in a patient with hepatomegaly, macroglossia and purpura.
AL amyloidosis was diagnosed in a 56-year-old woman with spontaneous purpura, macroglossia and hepatomegaly, a serum IgGk monoclonal gammopathy and a 25% plasma cell bone marrow infiltration. She was started on high-dose treatment consisting of four monthly cycles of VID chemotherapy, then underwent a stem cell collection after priming with cyclophosphamide + G-CSF. Myeloablative therapy was with melphalan and busulfan. Hematologic recovery was fast and uncomplicated. At follow-up 22 months from ASCT, the patient shows a complete remission of the clonal plasma cell disorder, normalization of liver size and alkaline phosphatase level and a significant improvement in the signs of vascular and soft tissue amyloid infiltration. (+info)
(8/360) Chronic peroxisome proliferation and hepatomegaly associated with the hepatocellular tumorigenesis of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and the effects of recovery.
This study compared the levels of cell proliferation and peroxisome proliferation in rodent liver with tumor incidence, to provide more information on the relationship between these events following chronic exposure. Fischer 344 rats were treated with 0, 100, 500, 2500, or 12,500 ppm DEHP, and B6C3F1 mice were treated with 0, 100, 500, 1500, or 6000 ppm DEHP in the diet for up to 104 weeks. Additional groups of rats and mice received the highest concentration for 78 weeks and then the control diet for an additional 26 weeks (recovery groups). Animals were terminated at weeks 79 and 105 for histopathologic examination. Elevated palmitoyl CoA oxidation activity and higher liver-to-body weight ratios were observed for the 2500- and 12,500-ppm groups of rats, and for the 500-, 1500-, and 6000-ppm groups of mice at Week 105. No increase in palmitoyl CoA oxidation activity was evident in the recovery group, and relative liver weights were near control levels following recovery. No hepatic cell proliferation was detected at Weeks 79 or 105 in either species although preliminary data indicated that cell proliferation did occur within the first 13 weeks of exposure. A significantly higher incidence of hepatocellular tumors was only observed for the 2500- and 12,500-ppm group and its recovery group of rats, and for the 500-, 1500-, and 6000-ppm groups and the recovery group of mice. The tumor incidences were reduced for the recovery groups compared with the groups fed DEHP continuously for 104 weeks. The data indicate that high levels of peroxisome proliferation and hepatomegaly are associated with DEHP hepatocarcinogenesis in rodent liver, and that the tumorigenic process may be arrested by cessation of DEHP treatment, suggesting that extended treatment with DEHP acts to promote tumor growth. (+info)