(1/1367) Relaxation of endothelin-1-induced pulmonary arterial constriction by niflumic acid and NPPB: mechanism(s) independent of chloride channel block.
We investigated the effects of the Cl- channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) and 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced constriction of rat small pulmonary arteries (diameter 100-400 microm) in vitro, following endothelium removal. ET-1 (30 nM) induced a sustained constriction of rat pulmonary arteries in physiological salt solution. Arteries preconstricted with ET-1 were relaxed by niflumic acid (IC50: 35.8 microM) and NPPB (IC50: 21.1 microM) in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. However, at concentrations known to block Ca++-activated Cl- channels, DIDS (=500 microM) had no effect on the ET-1-induced constriction. Similar results were obtained when pulmonary arteries were preincubated with these Cl- channel blockers. When L-type Ca++ channels were blocked by nifedipine (10 microM), the ET-1-induced (30 nM) constriction was inhibited by only 5.8%. However, niflumic acid (30 microM) and NPPB (30 microM) inhibited the ET-1-induced constriction by approximately 53% and approximately 60%, respectively, both in the continued presence of nifedipine and in Ca++-free physiological salt solution. The Ca++ ionophore A23187 (10 microM) also evoked a sustained constriction of pulmonary arteries. Surprisingly, the A23187-induced constriction was also inhibited in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner by niflumic acid (IC50: 18.0 microM) and NPPB (IC50: 8.8 microM), but not by DIDS (= 500 microM). Our data suggest that the primary mechanism by which niflumic acid and NPPB inhibit pulmonary artery constriction is independent of Cl- channel blockade. One possibility is that these compounds may block the Ca++-dependent contractile processes. (+info)
(2/1367) Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine.
1. The mechanisms of the sustained vasodilator actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and sauvagine (SVG) were studied using rings of endothelium de-nuded rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and the isolated perfused rat superior mesenteric arterial vasculature (SMA). 2. SVG was approximately 50 fold more potent than CRF on RTA (EC40: 0.9 +/- 0.2 and 44 +/- 9 nM respectively, P < 0.05), and approximately 10 fold more active in the perfused SMA (ED40: 0.05 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol respectively, P < 0.05). Single bolus injections of CRF (100 pmol) or SVG (15 pmol) in the perfused SMA caused reductions in perfusion pressure of 23 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2% that lasted more than 20 min. 3. Removal of the endothelium in the perfused SMA with deoxycholic acid attenuated the vasodilatation and revealed two phases to the response; a short lasting direct action, and a sustained phase which was fully inhibited. 4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (100 microM) L-NMMA (100 microM) or 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETPU, 100 microM) had similar effects on the vasodilator responses to CRF as removal of the endothelium, suggesting a pivotal role for nitric oxide. However the selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) did not affect the response to CRF. 5. High potassium (60 mM) completely inhibited the vasodilator response to CRF in the perfused SMA, indicating a role for K channels in this response. 6. Compared to other vasodilator agents acting via the release of NO, the actions of CRF and SVG are strikingly long-lasting, suggesting a novel mechanism of prolonged activation of nitric oxide synthase. (+info)
(3/1367) Coronary vasodilator effects of BNP: mechanisms of action in coronary conductance and resistance arteries.
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), a hormone secreted predominantly in ventricular myocytes, may influence coronary vascular tone. We studied the coronary vasodilatory response to BNP under physiological conditions and after preconstriction with endothelin-1 (ET-1) in anesthetized pigs. Average peak-flow velocity (APV) was measured using intracoronary Doppler, and cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using intravascular ultrasound. Coronary blood flow (CBF) was calculated. Intracoronary BNP induced dose-dependent increases in CSA, APV, and CBF similar in magnitude to those induced by nitroglycerin (NTG). The magnitude of BNP-induced vasodilation was accentuated after preconstriction with ET-1. Pretreatment with either the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the coronary vasodilator effect of BNP in resistance arteries without influencing epicardial vasodilation. Pretreatment with the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel blocker glibenclamide enhanced epicardial vasodilation in response to BNP. We conclude that BNP exerts coronary vasodilator effects, predominantly in epicardial conductance vessels. An accentuated vasodilatory response to BNP occurs in ET-1-preconstricted arteries. BNP-induced vasodilation in coronary resistance arteries may be partially mediated via nitric oxide and/or prostaglandin release. (+info)
(4/1367) Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction.
Previous results from our laboratory have suggested that morphine can attenuate neutrophil activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To elucidate if morphine preconditioning (PC) has the same effects via activation of neutrophil endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), we measured serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), gp100MEL14 and NEP in adult Wistar rats subjected to ten different protocols (n = 10 for each) at baseline, immediately after and 2 h after morphine PC. All groups were subjected to 30 min of occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Similarly, morphine-induced PC was elicited by 3-min drug infusions (100 micrograms/kg) interspersed with 5-min drug-free periods before the prolonged 30-min occlusion. Infarct size (IS), as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Pretreatment with morphine increased NEP activities (9.86 +/- 1.98 vs. 5.12 +/- 1.10 nmol/mg protein in control group; p < 0.001). Naloxone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) (4.82 +/- 1.02 nmol/mg protein) and phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) (4.66 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg protein) inhibited morphine-activated NEP, whereas glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist) and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) had no effects. The ICAM-1 and gp100MEL14 of the third sampling were lowest for those with morphine PC (280 +/- 30 ng/ml and 2.2 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml; p < 0.001), but naloxone (372 +/- 38 ng/ml and 3.8 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml) and phosphoramidon (382 +/- 40 ng/ml and 4.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml) abolished the above phenomenon. IS/AAR were definitely lowest for those with morphine PC (24 +/- 7%; p < 0.05). Morphine preconditioning increases NEP activities to attenuate shedding of gp100MEL14 and to ICAM-1 and, thus, provides myocardial protection. (+info)
(5/1367) Differential effects of pinacidil, cromakalim, and NS 1619 on electrically evoked contractions in rat vas deferens.
AIM: To compare the inhibitory action of electrically evoked contractions of rat epididymal vas deferens by pinacidil (Pin), cromakalim (Cro), and NS 1619. METHODS: Monophasic contractions were evoked by electric field stimulation in rat isolated epididymal half of vas deferens. RESULTS: Newly developed ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers, Pin and Cro, concentration-dependently reduced the electrically evoked (0.3 Hz, 1 ms pulse duration, 60 V) contractions and glibenclamide but not charybdotoxin antagonized the inhibitory effects of both agents. Pin shifted the concentration-response curve for norepinephrine to the right with reducing the magnitude of the maximum contraction in a glibenclamide-sensitive fashion. The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel opener, NS 1619, inhibited the electrically evoked contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. Charybdotoxin (100 nmol.L-1) partially reduced the effect of NS 1619 but glibenclamide (10 mumol.L-1) showed no effect. None of these 3 agents affected the basal tension. CONCLUSION: Both ATP-sensitive and Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels presented in vas deferens smooth muscles involved in regulation of muscle contractility. (+info)
(6/1367) Vasodilative properties of BPDZ 79, a new potassium channel opener, in isolated aorta.
AIM: To compare the effect of a novel potassium channel opener 3-(1',2',2'-trimethylpropyl)amine-4H-pyrido (2,3-e)-1,2,4-thiadiazine, 1-dioxide (BPDZ 79), with diazoxide on aorta. METHODS: Muscle tension of rat aorta was compared with adjacent aortic rings without endothelium. One ring was precontracted with KCl 80 mmol.L-1. Three rings were precontracted with KCl 80 mmol.L-1, and two of them were incubated with glibenclamide (0, 1, and 10 mumol.L-1). 86Rb outflow from rat aorta was measured in the presence of glibenclamide 10 mumol.L-1. RESULTS: BPDZ 79 and diazoxide provoked concentration-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of the vasoconstriction evoked by KCl 30 mmol.L-1, but not by 80 mmol.L-1. BPDZ 79 showed more potent vasorelaxation and 86Rb outflow than diazoxide. After incubation with glibenclamide (1 and 10 mumol.L-1), an inhibitor of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels, the relaxation induced by BPDZ 79 and diazoxide were decreased with the same pattern. CONCLUSION: BPDZ 79 is a potent vasodilator by opening potassium channels. (+info)
(7/1367) Role of K+ channels in A2A adenosine receptor-mediated dilation of the pressurized renal arcuate artery.
1. Adenosine A2A receptor-mediated renal vasodilation was investigated by measuring the lumenal diameter of pressurized renal arcuate arteries isolated from the rabbit. 2. The selective A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 dilated the arteries with an EC50 of 130 nM. The CGS21680-induced vasodilation was, on average, 34% less in endothelium-denuded arteries. 3. The maximum response and the EC50 for CGS21680-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact arteries were not significantly affected by incubation with the K+ channel blockers apamin (100 nM), iberiotoxin (100 nM), 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mM), glibenclamide (1 microM) or Ba2+ (10 microM). However, a cocktail mixture of these blockers did significantly inhibit the maximum response by almost 40%, and 1 mM Ba2+ alone or 1 mM Ba2+ in addition to the cocktail inhibited the maximum CGS21680-response by 58% and about 75% respectively. 4. CGS21680-induced vasodilation was strongly inhibited when the extracellular K+ level was raised to 20 mM even though the dilator response to 1 microM levcromakalim, a K(ATP) channel opener drug, was unaffected. 5. CGS21680-induced vasodilation was inhibited by 10 microM ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K(+)-ATPase, but ouabain had a similar inhibitory effect on vasodilation induced by 30 nM nicardipine (a dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist) or 1 microM levcromakalim. 6. The data suggest that K+ channel activation does play a role in A(2A) receptor-mediated renal vasodilation. The inhibitory effect of raised extracellular K+ levels on the A(2A) response may be due to K(+)-induced stimulation of Na+/K(+)-ATPase. (+info)
(8/1367) Effects of K(ATP) channel blockade by glibenclamide on the warm-up phenomenon.
AIMS: The increased tolerance to myocardial ischaemia observed during the second of two sequential exercise tests, i.e. the warm-up phenomenon, has been proposed as a clinical model of ischaemic preconditioning. As ATP-sensitive K+ channels appear to be a mediator of ischaemic preconditioning in both experimental and clinical studies, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of K(ATP) channels in the warm-up phenomenon. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with coronary artery disease were randomized to receive 10 mg oral glibenclamide, a selective ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, or placebo. Sixty minutes after glibenclamide or placebo administration, patients were given an infusion of 10% dextrose (8 ml x min(-1)) to correct glucose plasma levels or, respectively, an infusion of saline at the same infusion rate. Thirty minutes after the beginning of the infusions, both patient groups underwent two consecutive treadmill exercise tests, with a recovery period of 15 min to re-establish baseline conditions. Before exercise tests, blood glucose levels were similar in placebo and glibenclamide groups (96 +/- 10 vs 105 +/- 22 mg x 100 ml(-1), P=ns). After placebo administration, rate-pressure product at 1.5 mm ST-segment depression significantly increased during the second exercise test compared to the first (220 +/- 41 vs 186 +/- 29 beats x min(-1) x mmHg x 10(2), P<0.01), but it did not change after glibenclamide (191 +/- 34 vs 187 +/- 42 beats x min(-1) x mmHg x 10(2), P=ns), with a significant drug-test interaction (P=0.0091, at two-way ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: Glibenclamide, at a dose previously shown to abolish ischaemic preconditioning during coronary angioplasty, prevents the increase of ischaemic threshold observed during the second of two sequential exercise tests. These findings confirm that ischaemic preconditioning plays a key role in the warm-up phenomenon and that in this setting is, at least partially, mediated by activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. (+info)