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(1/605) Inactivation of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter causes glycogen storage disease type 1b.

Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD-1b) is proposed to be caused by a deficiency in microsomal glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) transport, causing a loss of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and glucose homeostasis. However, for decades, this disorder has defied molecular characterization. In this study, we characterize the structural organization of the G6P transporter gene and identify mutations in the gene that segregate with the GSD-1b disorder. We report the functional characterization of the recombinant G6P transporter and demonstrate that mutations uncovered in GSD-1b patients disrupt G6P transport. Our results, for the first time, define a molecular basis for functional deficiency in GSD-1b and raise the possibility that the defective G6P transporter contributes to neutropenia and neutrophil/monocyte dysfunctions characteristic of GSD-1b patients.  (+info)

(2/605) The mechanism of sugar phosphate isomerization by glucosamine 6-phosphate synthase.

Glucosamine 6-phosphate synthase converts fructose-6P into glucosamine-6P or glucose-6P depending on the presence or absence of glutamine. The isomerase activity is associated with a 40-kDa C-terminal domain, which has already been characterized crystallographically. Now the three-dimensional structures of the complexes with the reaction product glucose-6P and with the transition state analog 2-amino-2-deoxyglucitol-6P have been determined. Glucose-6P binds in a cyclic form whereas 2-amino-2-deoxyglucitol-6P is in an extended conformation. The information on ligand-protein interactions observed in the crystal structures together with the isotope exchange and site-directed mutagenesis data allow us to propose a mechanism of the isomerase activity of glucosamine-6P synthase. The sugar phosphate isomerization involves a ring opening step catalyzed by His504 and an enolization step with Glu488 catalyzing the hydrogen transfer from C1 to C2 of the substrate. The enediol intermediate is stabilized by a helix dipole and the epsilon-amino group of Lys603. Lys485 may play a role in deprotonating the hydroxyl O1 of the intermediate.  (+info)

(3/605) Identification of protein components of the microsomal glucose 6-phosphate transporter by photoaffinity labelling.

The glucose-6-phosphatase system catalyses the terminal step of hepatic glucose production from both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and is thus a key regulatory factor of blood glucose homoeostasis. To identify the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, we have performed photoaffinity labelling of human and rat liver microsomes by using the specific photoreactive glucose-6-phosphate translocase inhibitors S 0957 and S 1743. Membrane proteins of molecular mass 70, 55, 33 and 31 kDa were labelled in human microsomes by [3H]S 0957, whereas in rat liver microsomes bands at 95, 70, 57, 54, 50, 41, 33 and 31 kDa were detectable. The photoprobe [3H]S 1743 led to the predominant labelling of a 57 kDa and a 50 kDa protein in the rat. Stripping of microsomes with 0.3% CHAPS retains the specific binding of T1 inhibitors; photoaffinity labelling of such CHAPS-treated microsomes resulted in the labelling of membrane proteins of molecular mass 55, 33 and 31 kDa in human liver and 50, 33 and 31 kDa in rat liver. Photoaffinity labelling of human liver tissue samples from a healthy individual and from liver samples of patients with a diagnosed glycogen-storage disease type 1b (GSD type 1b; von Gierke's disease) revealed the absence of the 55 kDa protein from one of the patients with GSD type 1. These findings support the identity of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, with endoplasmic reticulum protein of molecular mass 50 kDa in rat liver and 55 kDa in human liver.  (+info)

(4/605) Glycogen depletion rather than glucose 6-P increments controls early glycogen recovery in human cultured muscle.

In glycogen-containing muscle, glycogenesis appears to be controlled by glucose 6-phosphate (6-P) provision, but after glycogen depletion, an autoinhibitory control of glycogen could be a determinant. We analyzed in cultured human muscle the contribution of glycogen depletion versus glucose 6-P in the control of glycogen recovery. Acute deglycogenation was achieved by engineering cells to overexpress glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Cells treated with AdCMV-MGP adenovirus to express 10 times higher active GP showed unaltered glycogen relative to controls at 25 mM glucose, but responded to 6-h glucose deprivation with more extensive glycogen depletion. Glycogen synthase (GS) activity ratio was double in glucose-deprived AdCMV-MGP cells compared with controls, despite identical glucose 6-P. The GS activation peak (30 min) induced by glucose reincubation dose dependently correlated with glucose 6-P concentration, which reached similar steady-state levels in both cell types. GS activation was significantly blunted in AdCMV-MGP cells, whereas it strongly correlated, with an inverse relationship, with glycogen content. An initial (0-1 h) rapid insulin-independent glycogen resynthesis was observed only in AdCMV-MGP cells, which progressed up to glycogen levels approximately 150 micrograms glucose/mg protein; control cells, which did not deplete glycogen below this concentration, showed a 1-h lag time for recovery. In summary, acute deglycogenation, as achieved by GP overexpression, caused the activation of GS, which inversely correlated with glycogen replenishment independent of glucose 6-P. During glycogen recovery, the activation promoted by acute deglycogenation rendered GS effective for controlling glycogenesis, whereas the transient activation of GS induced by the glucose 6-P rise had no impact on the resynthesis rate. We conclude that the early insulin-independent glycogen resynthesis is dependent on the activation of GS due to GP-mediated exhaustion of glycogen rather than glucose 6-P provision.  (+info)

(5/605) Allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase and hexokinase by glucosamine-6-phosphate during glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and heart.

Glucosamine infusion induces insulin resistance in vivo, but the effect of glucosamine on intracellular metabolites of the hexosamine pathway, especially glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) is unknown. Because of the structural similarity of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and GlcN6P, we hypothesized that accumulation of this metabolite might alter the activities of enzymes such as glycogen synthase and hexokinase. We infused glucosamine (30 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) to induce insulin resistance in rats during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Glucosamine induced whole-body insulin resistance, which was apparent after 90 min and continued progressively for 360 min. Despite inducing severe whole-body insulin resistance and decrease in glycogen synthase fractional activity in rectus abdominis muscle (69+/-3 vs. 83+/-1%, P<0.01) and heart (7+/-1 vs. 32+/-4%, P<0.001), glucosamine did not change the glycogen content in rectus and even increased it in the heart (209+/-13 vs. 117+/-9 mmol/kg dry wt, P<0.001). Glucosamine increased tissue concentrations of UDP-GlcNAc 4.4- and 4.6-fold in rectus abdominis and heart, respectively. However, GlcN6P concentrations increased 500- and 700-fold in glucosamine-infused animals in rectus abdominis (590+/-80 vs. 1.2+/-0.1 micromol/kg wet wt, P<0.001) and heart (7,703+/-993 vs. 11.2+/-2.3 micromol/kg wet wt, P<0.001). To assess the possible significance of GlcN6P accumulation, we measured the effect of GlcN6P on glycogen synthase and hexokinase activity in vitro. At the GlcN6P concentrations measured in rectus abdominis and heart in vivo, glycogen synthase was activated by 21 and 542%, while similar concentrations inhibited hexokinase activity by 5 and 46%, respectively. This study demonstrates that infusion of glucosamine during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp results in marked accumulation of intracellular GlcN6P. The GlcN6P concentrations in the heart and rectus abdominis muscle reach levels sufficient to cause allosteric activation of glycogen synthase and inhibition of hexokinase.  (+info)

(6/605) Rapid impairment of skeletal muscle glucose transport/phosphorylation by free fatty acids in humans.

The initial effects of free fatty acids (FFAs) on glucose transport/phosphorylation were studied in seven healthy men in the presence of elevated (1.44 +/- 0.16 mmol/l), basal (0.35 +/- 0.06 mmol/l), and low (<0.01 mmol/l; control) plasma FFA concentrations (P < 0.05 between all groups) during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphocreatine, ADP, and pH in calf muscle were measured every 3.2 min for 180 min by using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rates of whole-body glucose uptake increased similarly until 140 min but thereafter declined by approximately 20% in the presence of basal and high FFAs (42.8 +/- 3.6 and 41.6 +/- 3.3 vs. control: 52.7 +/- 3.3 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). The rise of intramuscular G-6-P concentrations was already blunted at 45 min of high FFA exposure (184 +/- 17 vs. control: 238 +/- 17 micromol/l, P = 0.008). At 180 min, G-6-P was lower in the presence of both high and basal FFAs (197 +/- 21 and 213 +/- 18 vs. control: 286 +/- 19 micromol/l, P < 0.05). Intramuscular pH decreased by -0.013 +/- 0.001 (P < 0.005) during control but increased by +0.008 +/- 0.002 (P < 0.05) during high FFA exposure, while Pi rose by approximately 0.39 mmol/l (P < 0.005) within 70 min and then slowly decreased in all studies. In conclusion, the lack of an initial peak and the early decline of muscle G-6-P concentrations suggest that even at physiological concentrations, FFAs primarily inhibit glucose transport/phosphorylation, preceding the reduction of whole-body glucose disposal by up to 120 min in humans.  (+info)

(7/605) Functional interaction between the N- and C-terminal halves of human hexokinase II.

Mammalian hexokinases (HKs) I-III are composed of two highly homologous approximately 50-kDa halves. Studies of HKI indicate that the C-terminal half of the molecule is active and is sensitive to inhibition by glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), whereas the N-terminal half binds G6P but is devoid of catalytic activity. In contrast, both the N- and C-terminal halves of HKII (N-HKII and C-HKII, respectively) are catalytically active, and when expressed as discrete proteins both are inhibited by G6P. However, C-HKII has a significantly higher Ki for G6P (KiG6P) than N-HKII. We here address the question of whether the high KiG6P of the C-terminal half (C-half) of HKII is decreased by interaction with the N-terminal half (N-half) in the context of the intact enzyme. A chimeric protein consisting of the N-half of HKI and the C-half of HKII was prepared. Because the N-half of HKI is unable to phosphorylate glucose, the catalytic activity of this chimeric enzyme depends entirely on the C-HKII component. The KiG6P of this chimeric enzyme is similar to that of HKI and is significantly lower than that of C-HKII. When a conserved amino acid (Asp209) required for glucose binding is mutated in the N-half of this chimeric protein, a significantly higher KiG6P (similar to that of C-HKII) is observed. However, mutation of a second conserved amino acid (Ser155), also involved in catalysis but not required for glucose binding, does not increase the KiG6P of the chimeric enzyme. This resembles the behavior of HKII, in which a D209A mutation results in an increase in the KiG6P of the enzyme, whereas a S155A mutation does not. These results suggest an interaction in which glucose binding by the N-half causes the activity of the C-half to be regulated by significantly lower concentrations of G6P.  (+info)

(8/605) Inactivation and loss of antigenicity of esterase by sugars and a steroid.

Glycation, the non-enzymic reaction of sugars with proteins, has an important role in the complications of diabetes. It has been studied mostly in structural proteins but more recently has been shown to inactivate enzymes. Previous evidence from our laboratory indicated that glycation-induced inactivation and loss of antigenicity of catalase and superoxide dismutase are simultaneous. Esterase, which decreases activity in the lens in senile cataract and diabetes, was measured by a spectrophotometric assay using p-nitrophenyl acetate as the substrate. Here we investigated the inactivation of carboxylesterase (EC 3.1.1.1) by sugars of different glycating power and prednisolone-21-hemisuccinate while simultaneously monitoring the loss of antigenicity. Antigenicity was assessed by immunoprecipitation and by dot-blotting the glycated and non-glycated fractions of enzymes separated by affinity chromatography. Ribose and fructose inactivated more rapidly than glucose and glucose 6-phosphate. The esterase was progressively inactivated by prednisolone-21-hemisuccinate at a lower concentration. Activity and antigenicity were lost simultaneously. The glycated enzyme had entirely lost its antigenicity. These results further support the idea that inactivation of enzyme and loss of antigenicity are simultaneous.  (+info)