In the United States during 1994, approximately 49% of all pregnancies, excluding miscarriages, were unintended. Unintended pregnancy can result in adverse health outcomes that affect the mother, infant, and family. Little is known about the distribution of unintended pregnancy with respect to the payment source for health care. In the absence of data for periconceptional payment source for health care, prenatal-care payment source is used as a surrogate. To develop recommendations to reduce unintended pregnancy, CDC analyzed insurance coverage-specific prevalences of live-born infants from unintended pregnancies among women aged 20-34 years using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) for 1996 (the most recent year for which data are available). This report summarizes the results of this analysis, which indicates that the highest rates of unintended pregnancy occurred among women covered by Medicaid, with lower rates among women covered by health-maintenance organizations (HMOs) or private insurance. (+info)
(2/885) Plasma leptin concentrations in obese children: changes during 4-mo periods with and without physical training.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of physical training on plasma leptin concentrations in children. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of 4-mo periods with and without physical training on leptin in obese children and to explore the determinants of leptin at baseline and in response to physical training. DESIGN: Participants were 34 obese 7-11-y-old children randomly assigned to engage in physical training during either the first or second 4 mo of the 8-mo study. RESULTS: Total body composition, visceral adiposity, and insulin were all positively correlated with leptin at baseline (P < or = 0.05); however, only fat mass was retained in the final stepwise regression (P = 0.0001, R2 = 0.57). Leptin decreased during the 4-mo periods of physical training and increased in the 4 mo after cessation of physical training (P < 0.001 for the time by group interaction). Decreases in leptin were greatest in children with higher pretraining leptin concentrations, those whose total mass increased least, and those whose insulin concentrations decreased most (P < or = 0.05); only pretraining leptin concentration (P = 0.009) and change in total mass (P = 0.0002) were retained in the final regression (R2 = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: In obese children, leptin concentration decreased during 4 mo of physical training and increased during a subsequent 4-mo period without physical training, fat mass was highly correlated with baseline leptin, and greater reductions in leptin during 4 mo of physical training were seen in children with higher pretraining leptin and in those whose total mass increased least. (+info)
(3/885) Efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines and persistence of disease in disadvantaged populations. The Haemophilus Influenzae Study Group.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines among children aged 2 to 18 months and to determine risk factors for invasive Hib disease during a period of declining incidence (1991-1994). METHODS: A prospective population-based case-control study was conducted in a multistate US population of 15.5 million. A laboratory-based active surveillance system was used for case detection. RESULTS: In a multivariate analysis, having a single-parent mother (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 14.8) and household crowding (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.03, 11.7) were risk factors for Hib disease independent of vaccination status. After adjustment for these risk factors, the protective efficacy of 2 or more Hib vaccine doses was 86% (95% CI = 16%, 98%). Among undervaccinated subjects, living with a smoker (P = .02) and several indicators of lower socioeconomic status were risk factors for Hib disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hib disease still occurs at low levels in the United States, predominantly in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Low immunization coverage may facilitate continuing transmission of Hib. Special efforts to achieve complete and timely immunization in disadvantaged populations are needed. (+info)
(4/885) Nausea during pregnancy and congenital heart defects: a population-based case-control study.
The authors investigated the possible association between a mother's nausea during pregnancy and her child's risk for a congenital heart defect using data from the population-based Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study conducted in 1982-1983. Case infants (n = 998) had nonsyndromic congenital heart defects and control infants (n = 3,029) had no congenital defects. Nausea during pregnancy (NP) was graded in eight levels of "severity" based on its onset, frequency, and duration. Level 1, the most severe NP, was associated with a lower risk for a congenital heart defect in the child (odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.99) compared with no nausea. The lower risk tended to disappear with less severe levels of nausea, and the trend was statistically significant. Overall, early NP (levels 1 to 4 combined) with use of antinausea medication, particularly Bendectin (doxylamine, dicyclomine (dropped from the formulation in 1976), pyridoxine (vitamin B6)), was associated with a lower risk for congenital heart defects compared with: 1) absence of nausea (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.92), and 2) nausea without medication use (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.94). The results suggest that pregnancy hormones and factors or, alternatively, a component of Bendectin (most probably pyridoxine) may be important for normal heart development. These findings outline potential areas for future research on and prevention of congenital heart defects. (+info)
(5/885) Maternal cigarette smoking and invasive meningococcal disease: a cohort study among young children in metropolitan Atlanta, 1989-1996.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the risk of invasive meningococcal disease during early childhood. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort study design, cases from an active surveillance project monitoring all invasive meningococcal disease in the metropolitan Atlanta area from 1989 to 1995 were merged with linked birth and death certificate data files. Children who had not died or acquired meningococcal disease were assumed to be alive and free of the illness. The Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent association between maternal smoking and meningococcal disease. RESULTS: The crude rate of meningococcal disease was 5 times higher for children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy than for children whose mothers did not smoke (0.05% vs 0.01%). Multivariate analysis revealed that maternal smoking (risk ratio [RR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 5.7) and a mother's having fewer than 12 years of education (RR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0, 4.2) were independently associated with invasive meningococcal disease. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking, a likely surrogate for tobacco smoke exposure following delivery, appears to be a modifiable risk factor for sporadic meningococcal disease in young children. (+info)
(6/885) What do internal medicine residents need to enhance their diabetes care?
OBJECTIVE: To identify areas that should be targeted for improvement in care, we examined internal medicine resident practice patterns and beliefs regarding diabetes in a large urban hospital outpatient clinic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Internal medicine residents were surveyed to assess the frequency at which they performed key diabetes quality of care indicators. Responses were compared with recorded performance derived from chart and laboratory database reviews. Resident attitudes about diabetes were determined using the Diabetes Attitude Survey for Practitioners. Finally, an eight-item scale was used to assess barriers to diabetes care. RESULTS: Both self-described and recorded performance of recommended diabetes services short of national recommendations. For yearly eye examinations and lipid screening, recorded performance levels were similar to trainees' reports. However, documented inquiries about patient self-monitoring of blood glucose, performance of foot examinations, and urine protein screening were lower than trainees' reports. Some 49% of the residents selected a target HbA1c of 6.6-7.5% as an attainable goal, yet half of the patients using oral agents or insulin had HbA1c values > 8.0%. No differences in self-described or recorded performance were found by year of training. Most residents did not perceive themselves to need additional training related to diabetes care, and residents were generally neutral about patient autonomy. Patient nonadherence and time constraints within the clinic were most often cited as barriers to care. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies several areas that require improvement in resident care of diabetes in the ambulatory setting. Because experience during training contributes to future practice patterns, developing a program that teaches trainees how to implement diabetes practice guidelines and methods to achieve optimal glycemic control may be key to future improvements in the quality of diabetes care. (+info)
(7/885) A Mexican restaurant-associated outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis type 34 infections traced to a contaminated egg farm.
In May 1996, the Georgia Division of Public Health was notified about a cluster of persons with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Waycross, Georgia. A matched pair case-control study to determine risk factors for illness found a statistically significant association of SE infection with a history of having eaten at Restaurant A during the 5 days before onset of illness (relative risk = 13 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3-62, P < 0.01]). In a second case-control study, to determine specific food exposures, consumption of a deep-fried Mexican dish (chile relleno) (4 of 21 cases vs. 0 of 26 controls, odds ratio undefined, 95% CI > 1.46, P = 0.034) was found to be significantly associated with SE infection. An environmental investigation found evidence of suboptimal food storage and cooking temperatures at Restaurant A; cross contamination of foods may have contributed to the low attributable risk identified for chile rellenos. Five of 37 Restaurant A food and environment specimens yielded SE strains. All five positive specimens were from chiles rellenos. Of the seven outbreak-associated strains (six patient isolates and one food isolate from Restaurant A) for which phage typing was conducted, all were phage type 34. A FDA traceback investigation through Restaurant A's single-egg supplier identified the potential source as three interrelated farms in South Carolina. Environmental culture from one of these farms yielded SE phage type 34. As a result of this outbreak, FDA helped institute a statewide egg quality-assurance programme in South Carolina to minimize SE contamination of eggs. (+info)
(8/885) Mental retardation following diagnosis of a metabolic disorder in children aged 3-10 years--metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, 1991-1994.
One of the largest population-based disease intervention programs in the United States is newborn metabolic screening. Since the mid- to late 1970s, newborns have been screened routinely for one or more metabolic disorders. The goal of early identification and treatment of metabolic disorders is prevention of the serious medical and developmental consequences of the disorders (e.g., mental retardation [MR]). Despite this goal, the United States has no mechanism for systematic surveillance of the developmental status of children who screen positive for and subsequently have metabolic disorders diagnosed. To determine the number of selected developmental disabilities attributable to metabolic disorders detected by newborn screening, CDC conducted a preliminary investigation of children with developmental disabilities and metabolic disorders in the metropolitan Atlanta area using data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program (MADDSP). This report summarizes the results of this investigation, which indicate that newborn screening is highly effective in reducing the burden of MR associated with these disorders. (+info)