(25/1076) Catalytic activities and substrate specificity of the human membrane type 4 matrix metalloproteinase catalytic domain.
Membrane type (MT) matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are recently recognized members of the family of Zn(2+)- and Ca(2+)-dependent MMPs. To investigate the proteolytic capabilities of human MT4-MMP (i.e. MMP-17), we have cloned DNA encoding its catalytic domain (CD) from a breast carcinoma cDNA library. Human membrane type 4 MMP CD (MT4-MMPCD) protein, expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli, was purified to homogeneity and refolded in the presence of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+). While MT4-MMPCD cleaved synthetic MMP substrates Ac-PLG-[2-mercapto-4-methylpentanoyl]-LG-OEt and Mca-PLGL-Dpa-AR-NH(2) with modest efficiency, it catalyzed with much higher efficiency the hydrolysis of a pro-tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme synthetic substrate, Mca-PLAQAV-Dpa-RSSSR-NH(2). Catalytic efficiency with the pro-tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme substrate was maximal at pH 7.4 and was modulated by three ionizable enzyme groups (pK(a3) = 6.2, pK(a2) = 8.3, and pK(a1) = 10.6). MT4-MMPCD cleaved gelatin but was inactive toward type I collagen, type IV collagen, fibronectin, and laminin. Like all known MT-MMPs, MT4-MMPCD was also able to activate 72-kDa progelatinase A to its 68-kDa form. EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, reference hydroxamic acid MMP inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 all potently blocked MT4-MMPCD enzymatic activity. MT4-MMP is, therefore, a competent Zn(2+)-dependent MMP with unique specificity among synthetic substrates and the capability to both degrade gelatin and activate progelatinase A. (+info)
(26/1076) Transmural pressure induces matrix-degrading activity in porcine arteries ex vivo.
Extracellular matrix components must be degraded and resynthesized for vascular remodeling to occur. We hypothesized that the hemodynamic environment regulates activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the primary agents for in vivo matrix degradation, during vascular remodeling in response to changes in transmural pressure and shear stress. Pathological hemodynamic conditions were reproduced in an ex vivo system in which we maintained porcine carotid arteries for 24 and 48 h. Total levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 extracted from tissue homogenates and analyzed by SDS-PAGE zymography were stimulated by transmural pressure and were unaffected by shear stress changes. Degradation of two specific gelatinase substrates, gelatin and elastin, increased with increasing pressure, but the degradation was not affected by shear stress changes in tissue specimens analyzed using in situ zymography (gelatin) and fluorescent measurement of endogenous elastin degradation (elastin). Our results suggest that transmural pressure activates at least two members of the MMP family and that activity of these enzymes is accompanied by degradation of matrix components, effects that may be implicated in hypertensive vascular remodeling. (+info)
(27/1076) Photodynamic tissue adhesion with chlorin(e6) protein conjugates.
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that a photodynamic laser-activated tissue solder would perform better in sealing scleral incisions when the photosensitizer was covalently linked to the protein than when it was noncovalently mixed. METHODS: Conjugates and mixtures were prepared between the photosensitizer chlorin(e6) and various proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, and gelatin) in different ratios and used to weld penetrating scleral incisions made in human cadaveric eyes. A blue-green (488-514 nm) argon laser activated the adhesive, and the strength of the closure was measured by increasing the intraocular pressure until the wound showed leakage. RESULTS: Both covalent conjugates and noncovalent mixtures showed a light dose-dependent increase in leaking pressure. A preparation of albumin chlorin(e6) conjugate with additional albumin added (2.5 protein to chlorin(e6) molar ratio) showed significantly higher weld strength than other protein conjugates and mixtures. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of dye-protein conjugates as tissue solders. These conjugates may have applications in ophthalmology. (+info)
(28/1076) Efficient production of artificially designed gelatins with a Bacillus brevis system.
Artificially designed gelatins comprising tandemly repeated 30-amino-acid peptide units derived from human alphaI collagen were successfully produced with a Bacillus brevis system. The DNA encoding the peptide unit was synthesized by taking into consideration the codon usage of the host cells, but no clones having a tandemly repeated gene were obtained through the above-mentioned strategy. Minirepeat genes could be selected in vivo from a mixture of every possible sequence encoding an artificial gelatin by randomly ligating the mixed sequence unit and transforming it into Escherichia coli. Larger repeat genes constructed by connecting minirepeat genes obtained by in vivo selection were also stable in the expression host cells. Gelatins derived from the eight-unit and six-unit repeat genes were extracellularly produced at the level of 0.5 g/liter and easily purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified artificial gelatins had the predicted N-terminal sequences and amino acid compositions and a solgel property similar to that of the native gelatin. These results suggest that the selection of a repeat unit sequence stable in an expression host is a shortcut for the efficient production of repetitive proteins and that it can conveniently be achieved by the in vivo selection method. This study revealed the possible industrial application of artificially designed repetitive proteins. (+info)
(29/1076) The partial substitution of digestible protein with gelatinized starch as an energy source reduces susceptibility to lipid oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle.
We evaluated the influence of dietary gelatinized starch and protein on the fatty acid composition of muscle in rainbow trout and European sea bass and on the susceptibility of flesh to lipid peroxidation. The possibility that flesh peroxidation could be accounted for by lipogenesis and the deposition of fat was also explored. The inclusion of gelatinized starch in the diet of rainbow trout improved growth with respect to that observed in fish fed crude starch (P<.001). This was especially noticeable at the lowest concentration of dietary protein tested (P = .037); suggesting that gelatinized starch may partially replace protein in the production of energy without inducing a negative effect on growth. However, in European sea bass, the gelatinization of starch and dietary protein concentration showed no significant effect on final body weight. The intramuscular neutral lipid concentration of the sea bass was reduced by the gelatinization of dietary starch (P = .034). The highest dietary protein concentration increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in the neutral (P = .0742) and polar (P = .0033) lipid fractions. The dietary inclusion of high levels of protein in rainbow trout led to a lower concentration of total (n-3) (P = .0457) and (n-6) (P = .0522) fatty acids and a higher concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (P = .0006). The inclusion of gelatinized starch led to a lower concentration of (n-3) fatty acids (P = .0034) and a higher concentration of saturated fatty acids (P = .0007). The polar fraction was hardly affected by the same treatment. A significantly lower susceptibility of the dorsal muscle to oxidation was observed in groups of European sea bass fed gelatinized starch (P<.01). A similar trend was observed in rainbow trout, although differences were not significant. The findings suggest that the digestible protein concentration of nutrient-dense diets for rainbow trout and European sea bass can be reduced with a beneficial effect on tissue lipid oxidation and no negative effects on growth and muscle composition. (+info)
(30/1076) Cyanoacrylate glue as an alternative to an additional suture line in the repair of type A aortic dissection.
We describe the use of cyanoacrylate glue in conjunction with gelatin-resorcinol-formalin glue for the treatment of type A aortic dissection. Instead of placing an additional suture line 2-3 cm from the edges of the aortic stumps to create a large pocket for gluing, we have been using a cyanoacrylate adhesive for approximating the walls of the true and false lumina without the risk of tearing them. Moreover, the simplicity and quickness of the procedure enables application of the cyanoacrylate glue even deeper into the aortic arch, creating a wider area for gluing the dissected layers. (+info)
(31/1076) Brief perinatal hypoxia increases severity of pulmonary hypertension after reexposure to hypoxia in infant rats.
We hypothesized that disrupted alveolarization and lung vascular growth caused by brief perinatal hypoxia would predispose infant rats to higher risk for developing pulmonary hypertension when reexposed to hypoxia. Pregnant rats were exposed to 11% inspired oxygen fraction (barometric pressure, 410 mmHg; inspired oxygen pressure, 76 mmHg) for 3 days before birth and were maintained in hypoxia for 3 days after birth. Control rats were born and raised in room air. At 2 wk of age, rats from both groups were exposed to hypoxia for 1 wk or kept in room air. We found that brief perinatal hypoxia resulted in a greater increase in right ventricular systolic pressure and higher ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum weights after reexposure to hypoxia after 2 wk of age. Moreover, perinatal hypoxic rats had decreased radial alveolar counts and reduced pulmonary artery density. We conclude that brief perinatal hypoxia increases the severity of pulmonary hypertension when rats are reexposed to hypoxia. We speculate that disrupted alveolarization and lung vascular growth following brief perinatal hypoxia may increase the risk for severe pulmonary hypertension with exposure to adverse stimuli later in life. (+info)
(32/1076) Collagenolytic and gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in basal cell carcinoma of skin: comparison with normal skin.
Tissue from 54 histologically-identified basal cell carcinomas of the skin was obtained at surgery and assayed using a combination of functional and immunochemical procedures for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with collagenolytic activity and for MMPs with gelatinolytic activity. Collagenolytic enzymes included MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-8 (neutrophil collagenase) and MMP-13 (collagenase-3). Gelatinolytic enzymes included MMP-2 (72-kDa gelatinase A/type IV collagenase) and MMP-9 (92-kDa gelatinase B/type IV collagenase). Inhibitors of MMP activity including tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and -2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were also assessed. All three collagenases and both gelatinases were detected immunochemically. MMP-1 appeared to be responsible for most of the functional collagenolytic activity while gelatinolytic activity reflected both MMP-2 and MMP-9. MMP inhibitor activity was also present, and appeared, based on immunochemical procedures, to reflect the presence of TIMP-1 but not TIMP-2. As a group, tumours identified as having aggressive-growth histologic patterns were not distinguishable from basal cell carcinomas with less aggressive-growth histologic patterns. In normal skin, the same MMPs were detected by immunochemical means. However, only low to undetectable levels of collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities were present. In contrast, MMP inhibitor activity was comparable to that seen in tumour tissue. In previous studies we have shown that exposure of normal skin to epidermal growth factor in organ culture induces MMP up-regulation and activation. This treatment concomitantly induces stromal invasion by the epithelium (Varani et al (1995) Am J Pathol 146: 210-217; Zeigler et al (1996b) Invasion Metastasis 16: 11-18). Taken together with these previous data, the present findings allow us to conclude that the same profile of MMP/MMP inhibitors that is associated with stromal invasion in the organ culture model is expressed endogenously in basal cell carcinomas of skin. (+info)