(17/1076) The effects of increasing the reverse curve of Spee in a lower archwire examined using a dynamic photo-elastic gelatine model.

This paper describes the development and testing of a dynamic in vitro photo-elastic model for evaluating the effects of orthodontic mechanics on an entire arch of teeth. A model of a mandibular arch was made and the teeth were embedded in a gelatine material with a high level of mechanical creep which permitted tooth movement in response to orthodontic forces. The excellent photo-elastic properties of this material also facilitated the analysis of the stress distribution around the roots of the teeth. The model of a mandibular arch was used to investigate the tooth movements and stress distributions produced by increasing the reverse curve of Spee in a 0.018 x 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire. The results revealed that a 1-mm reverse curve of Spee increased the arch length by 1.6 mm, but increasing the reverse curve of Spee to 5 mm did not increase arch length further. Photo-elastic analysis showed an increased stress distribution around the roots of the incisors and molars as the reverse curve of Spee was increased in the archwire.  (+info)

(18/1076) An invasion-related complex of cortactin, paxillin and PKCmu associates with invadopodia at sites of extracellular matrix degradation.

Invasive breast cancer cells have the ability to extend membrane protrusions, invadopodia, into the extracellular matrix (ECM). These structures are associated with sites of active matrix degradation. The amount of matrix degradation associated with the activity of these membrane protrusions has been shown to directly correlate with invasive potential. We demonstrate here that microinjection of polyclonal anti-cortactin antibodies blocks matrix degradation at invadopodia supporting the hypothesis that cortactin has a direct role in invasive behavior. MDA-MB-231, invasive breast cancer cells were sheared from the surface of a gelatin matrix to isolate invadopodia. Cortactin, paxillin and protein kinase C (PKC) mu, a serine kinase, were co-immunoprecipitated as a complex from invadopodia-enriched membranes. We confirmed the subcellular distribution of these proteins by immunolocalization and Western blotting. We also determined that, in contrast to its presence in invasive cells, this complex of proteins was not detected in lysates from non-invasive cells that do not form invadopodia. Taken together, these data suggest that the formation of this cortactin-containing complex correlates with cellular invasiveness. We hypothesize that this complex of molecules has a role in the formation and function of invadopodia during cellular invasion.  (+info)

(19/1076) The sensitivity of versican from rabbit lung to gelatinase A (MMP-2) and B (MMP-9) and its involvement in the development of hydraulic lung edema.

Large chondroitinsulphate-containing proteoglycan (versican) isolated from rabbit lung was cleaved by purified gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9), as well as by crude enzyme extract from rabbit lung with hydraulic edema. Gelatine zymography, performed after purification of gelatinases by affinity chromatography, demonstrated that the enzyme extract contained two main gelatinolytic bands at about 92 kDa and 72 kDa, identified by specific antisera as the latent proMMP-9 and proMMP-2, respectively. Moreover, enzyme extract from edematous lung showed an increased amount of the proteolytically activated forms of both gelatinases with respect to normal controls. These results suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in the breakdown of versican occurring in rabbit lung during the development of hydraulic edema.  (+info)

(20/1076) Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and bladder carcinoma metastasis by halofuginone.

Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) plays a critical role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Inhibitors of this enzyme effectively suppress tumor metastasis in experimental animals and are currently being tested in clinical trials. MMP-2 transcriptional regulation is a part of a delicate balance between the expression of various extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents and ECM degrading enzymes. Halofuginone, a low-molecular-weight quinazolinone alkaloid, is a potent inhibitor of collagen type alpha1 (I) gene expression and ECM deposition. We now report that expression of the MMP-2 gene by murine (MBT2-t50) and human (5637) bladder carcinoma cells is highly susceptible to inhibition by halofuginone. Fifty percent inhibition was obtained in the presence of as little as 50 ng/ml halofuginone. This inhibition is due to an effect of halofuginone on the activity of the MMP-2 promoter, as indicated by a pronounced suppression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity driven by the MMP-2 promoter in transfected MBT2 cells. There was no effect on chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity driven by SV40 promoter in these cells. Halofuginone-treated cells failed to invade through reconstituted basement-membrane (Matrigel) coated filters, in accordance with the inhibition of MMP-2 gene expression. A marked reduction (80-90%) in the lung colonization of MBT2 bladder carcinoma cells was obtained after the i.v. inoculation of halofuginone-treated cells as compared with the high metastatic activity exhibited by control untreated cells. Under the same conditions, there was almost no effect of halofuginone on the rate of MBT2 cell proliferation. These results indicate that the potent antimetastatic activity of halofuginone is due primarily to a transcriptional suppression of the MMP-2 gene, which results in a decreased enzymatic activity, matrix degradation, and tumor cell extravasation. This is the first description, to our knowledge, of a drug that inhibits experimental metastasis through the inhibition of MMP-2 at the transcriptional level. Combined with its known inhibitory effect on collagen synthesis and ECM deposition, halofuginone is expected to exert a profound anticancerous effect by inhibiting both the primary tumor stromal support and metastatic spread.  (+info)

(21/1076) Oral administration of (14)C labeled gelatin hydrolysate leads to an accumulation of radioactivity in cartilage of mice (C57/BL).

Several investigations showed a positive influence of orally administered gelatin on degenerative diseases of the musculo-skeletal system. Both the therapeutic mechanism and the absorption dynamics, however, remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the time course of gelatin hydrolysate absorption and its subsequent distribution in various tissues in mice (C57/BL). Absorption of (14)C labeled gelatin hydrolysate was compared to control mice administered (14)C labeled proline following intragastric application. Plasma and tissue radioactivity was measured over 192 h. Additional "gut sac" experiments were conducted to quantify the MW distribution of the absorbed gelatin using SDS-electrophoresis and HPLC. Ninety-five percent of enterally applied gelatin hydrolysate was absorbed within the first 12 h. The distribution of the labeled gelatin in the various tissues was similar to that of labeled proline with the exception of cartilage, where a pronounced and long-lasting accumulation of gelatin hydrolysate was observed. In cartilage, measured radioactivity was more than twice as high following gelatin administration compared to the control group. The absorption of gelatin hydrolysate in its high molecular form, with peptides of 2.5-15kD, was detected following intestinal passage. These results demonstrate intestinal absorption and cartilage tissue accumulation of gelatin hydrolysate and suggest a potential mechanism for previously observed clinical benefits of orally administered gelatin.  (+info)

(22/1076) Integrin alphavbeta3-RGDS interaction mediates fibrin-induced morphological changes of glomerular endothelial cells.

BACKGROUND: In our previous studies, we found that intraglomerular deposition of fibrin and its metabolites was related to glomerular sclerosis and reduced renal function. It has been reported that both overlying and underlying fibrin may induce specific morphological changes of cultured endothelial cells from large blood vessels. The dependency of these morphological changes on the integrin alphavbeta3-arginyl-glycyl-aspartyl-serine (RGDS) interaction is still controversial. We hypothesized that glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) stimulated by fibrin might undergo morphological changes through an integrin alphavbeta3-RGDS interaction. Methods. In vitro studies were performed to examine the growing status of GECs stimulated by overlying and underlying fibrin gels in the presence or absence of the following: 50 microg/ml anti-alphavbeta3 integrin monoclonal antibody 23C6 or nonimmune mouse IgG, 1 mg/ml synthetic RGDS or arginyl-glycyl-glycyl-serine (RGGS) peptide, 10 mg/ml sodium heparin, 100 microg/ml cycloheximide, and 10 microM actinomycin D. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-purified fibrinogen and the third to fifth passages of human GECs were also used in this study. RESULTS: GECs developed capillary tube structure after 60 hours of culturing on fibrin gels, and GECs cultured on gelatin-coated plates displayed a monolayer of cobblestone-like cells in the presence or absence of 23C6 and synthetic RGDS peptide. Fibrin-induced capillary tube formation was promoted by 23C6 and inhibited by RGDS peptide, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D. Disorganization of the GEC monolayer was induced by overlying fibrin, but was not induced by overlying agarose gels and glass cover slips or culturing in fibrinogen, 0.05 NIH U/ml thrombin, fibrin supernatants, as well as in fibrin degradation products. Disorganization of GEC monolayer can be induced by both des-AA-fibrin and des-AABB-fibrin and was unaffected by heparin. Furthermore, both 23C6 and synthetic RGDS peptide prevented disorganization of GECs induced by overlying fibrin, whereas nonimmune mouse IgG, synthetic RGGS peptide, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D had no similar effect. CONCLUSIONS: GECs cultured on fibrin gels may develop capillary structure spontaneously, and GECs covered by fibrin gels may undergo disorganization. Our data suggest that these GEC morphological changes are mediated by an integrin alphavbeta3-RGDS interaction.  (+info)

(23/1076) Regulation of angiostatin production by matrix metalloproteinase-2 in a model of concomitant resistance.

We have previously reported the identification of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin, a specific inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. In our original studies, we demonstrated that a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-LM) primary tumor could suppress the growth of its metastases by generating angiostatin. Angiostatin, a 38-kDa internal fragment of plasminogen, was purified from the serum and urine of mice bearing LLC-LM, and its discovery provides the first proven mechanism for concomitant resistance (O'Reilly, M. S., Holmgren, L., Shing, Y., Chen, C., Rosenthal, R. A., Moses, M. A., Lane, W. S., Cao, Y., Sage, E. H., and Folkman, J. (1994) Cell 79, 315-328). Subsequently, we have shown that systemic administration of angiostatin can regress a wide variety of malignant tumors in vivo. However, at the time of our initial discovery of angiostatin, the source of the protein was unclear. We hypothesized that the tumor or stromal cells might produce an enzyme that could cleave plasminogen sequestered by the primary tumor into angiostatin. Alternatively, we speculated that the tumor cells might express angiostatin. By Northern analysis, however, we have found no evidence that the tumor cells express angiostatin or other fragments of plasminogen (data not shown). We now report that gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase-2), produced directly by the LLC-LM cells, is responsible for the production of angiostatin, which suppresses the growth of metastases in our original model.  (+info)

(24/1076) Differential modulatory effects of clarithromycin on the production of cytokines by a tumor.

In vitro treatment with clarithromycin inhibited the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-9, transforming growth factor beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha genes in 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Transient enhancement, rather than inhibition, was observed for the interleukin-6 gene, and no significant change was observed for the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 gene. Such an effect was not observed for cefotiam or gentamicin.  (+info)